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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Menachos 93



(a) When Rav Chananyah quoted a Beraisa 'Yoresh Eino Somech, Yoresh Eino Meimar', Rava reacted - by referring to our Mishnah, which rules 'ha'Yoresh Somech ... u'Meimar'.

(b) Rav Chananyah therefore suggested - that he amend the wording to conform with our Mishnah.

(c) Rava rejected his suggestion - because it was possible to leave the Beraisa intact and to establish it like Rebbi Yehudah, who argues with our Mishnah anyway.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns his opinion from the Pasuk "Korbano", 've'Lo Korban Aviv', explaining the Din with regard to Semichah. As far as precluding a father's Korban from Temurah is concerned - he learns Techilas Hekdesh (Temurah) from Sof Hekdesh (Semichah, which immediately precedes the Shechitah) with a Binyan Av.

(b) The Rabbanan include a father's Korban in the Din of Temurah from the Pasuk in Bechukosai "ve'Im Hamer Yamir" - and they then learn Sof Hekdesh from Techilas Hekdesh.

(a) To be able to learn "Korbano", 've'Lo Korban Aviv' (that we discussed at the beginning of the Amud) - Rebbi Yehudah rejects the D'rashah "Korbano", 'Lerabos Kol Ba'alei Korban li'Semichah'.

(b) Alternatively, he maintains all three D'rashos, only he precludes two of the three D'rashos from the same "Korbano" - i.e. "Korbano", 've'Lo Korban Chaveiro ... ve'Lo Korban Oved-Kochavim', and he precludes 've'Lo Korban Aviv' from the third one.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah requires a Pasuk to teach us "Korbano", 've'Lo Korban Aviv' (in spite of the D'rashah "Korbano", 've'Lo Korban Chaveiro') - because we might otherwise have thought that since a son inherits his father, it is as if he is his extension (and not comparable to 'Chaveiro' ['B'ra Kar'a de'Avuhah']).

(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns from "ve'Im Hamer Yamir" - that a woman is included in the Dinim of Temurah.

(b) She is not automatically included (even though it is a La'av, as well as an Asei that is not determined by time) - because the Parshah speaks in the masculine singular throughout.

(c) The Rabbanan learn that from the 'Vav' in "ve'Im." Rebbi Yehudah - learns nothing from there, since he does consider the extra 'Vav' significant.

(a) Our Mishnah states that - everyone is Chayav to perform Semichah on their Korban ...

(b) ... with the exception of a Cheresh, Shoteh ve'Katan.

(c) Besides a blind person a Nochri (even on their own Korban) and a Sheli'ach - a woman is exempt from performing Semichah on her Korban, too.

(d) When the Tana refers to Semichah as Sheyarei Mitzvah, he means - that it is only the remnant of a Mitzvah, and that if one fails to perform it, one is nevertheless Yotzei.

(a) The Tana also requires Semichah with both hands on the head of the Korban. And he rules that ...
1. ... one performs the Semichah in the same location where one performed the Shechitah (without moving it from the spot).
2. ... 'Teikef li'Semichah Shechitah' (i.e. the Shechitah should follow the Semichah immediately).
(b) The second of these statements renders the first redundant. We will therefore add the clause 'she' to it, turning it into the reason for the first statement (rather than an independent ruling).

(c) The Mishnah then exempts ...

1. ... a Cheresh, Shoteh ve'Katan from Semichah - on the basis of their not being B'nei Da'as (mature).
2. ... a Nochri from making Semichah on his own Korban - on the basis of the Pasuk in Vayikra (in connection with the Olas Nedavah) "B'nei Yisrael ... Ve'samach", from which they Darshen 'B'nei Yisrael Somchin, ve'Ein Nochrim Somchin'.
(d) Rav Chisda and Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi argue over the source of the Din exempting a blind person from Semichah. They both learn it from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' 'Semichah' 'Semichah'; one of them, from ...
1. ... 'Ziknei ha'Eidah' - which is written in connection with the Par He'elam Davar shel Tzibur.
2. ... whilst the second Semichah is written in connection with - the Olas Re'iyah (which each member of the Tzibur brings on Yom-Tov).
(a) The reason that ...
1. ... the second opinion learns it (the obligation of a blind person to perform Semichah) from Olas Re'iyah rather than from Ziknei ha'Eidah is - because he prefers to learn Yachid from Yachid (rather than Yachid from Tzibur).
2. ... the first opinion learns it from Ziknei ha'Eidah rather than from Olas Re'iyah is - because he prefers to learn it from a source where the Torah specifically writes "Semichah" (rather than from one which itself, only learns it from another source).
(b) The Beraisa learns the Din of Semichah by Olas Re'iyah from a Pasuk (in connection with the eighth day of the Milu'im). The Tana derives the Olah of the Milu'im from "Va'yakrev es ha'Olah Va'ya'asehah ka'Mishpat", which Chazal Darshen to mean - 'ke'Mishpat Olas Nedavah' (which requires Semichah).

(c) And we compare Olas Re'iyah to the Olah of the Milu'im - because it is an obligation just like it is.




(a) From the Pasuk "ve'Samach Yado", the Beraisa precludes a man's Eved, his Sheli'ach - and his wife from making Semichah on his Korban.

(b) Having taught us ...

1. ... 'Avdo', the Tana nevertheless finds it necessary to add 'Shelucho' - because, unlike the former, he is Chayav Mitzvos like himself (and if not for a special Pasuk, we would apply the principle 'Shelucho shel Adam Kamoso').
2. ... 'Avdo' and 'Shelucho, the Tana finds it necessary to add 'Ishto - because we would otherwise apply the principle 'Ishto ke'Gufo' (in which case it is as if he himself had performed it).
(a) The problem the Beraisa has with the Pasuk "Ve'samach ... Ve'nirtzah" is - that it is not the Semichah that attains the Kaparah, but the Zerikas ha'Dam.

(b) The Tana therefore explains the Pasuk to mean - that even though Semichah is only a Sheyarei Mitzvah, someone who does not perform it, has not done the Mitzvah properly (as if he did not perform it at all).

(c) The Tana asks the same Kashya and give the same answer in connection with the Mitzvah of - Tenufah (by which the Torah uses a similar expression, even though it too, is only a Sheyarei Mitzvah).

(a) From the Pasuk "Ve'samach es Yado al Rosh ... ", the Beraisa learns "Yado al ha'Rosh" 've'Lo Yado al ha'Tzavar' - meaning the underside of the neck (i.e. the location of the throat).

(b) The two other locations that we preclude from two of the other times where the Torah uses the same expression, are - the back and the chest.

(c) Having precluded ...

1. ... the Tzavar, the Tana nevertheless needs to add the back - because unlike the former, it is in line with the head (and may therefore have been incorporated with it).
2. ... the Tzavar and the back, he nevertheless finds it necessary to add the chest - because, it is included in the Din of Tenufah (whereas the Tzavar and the back are not).
(a) We ask whether the side is included in Semichah or not. By 'the side' we mean - the side of the head.

(b) And we answer with a Beraisa, where Aba Bira'ah b'Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov - specifically precludes the side from the Din of Semichah.

(c) And we resolve the She'eilah whether a cloth is considered Chatzitzah regarding Semichah or not - with a Beraisa, which forbids any Chatzitzah between the person performing Semichah and the head of the animal.

(a) The Pasuk (in connection with the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach) "ve'Samach Aharon es Sh'tei Yadav al Rosh ha'Sa'ir ... " - spells "Yadav" without a 'Yud' (as if it was meant to be singular).

(b) Resh Lakish learns from this - that wherever the Torah spells "Yadav" that way it always means two hands (as if it had written 'Sh'tei' in front of it).

(c) In fact - this is the source of the ruling in our Mishnah, that requires Semichah to be performed with both hands.

(d) Rebbi Elazar made Resh Lakish angry - by citing this Halachah without mentioning his name.

(a) The Torah writes the word "Yadav" with the 'Vav' (such as "Yadav Tevi'enah"(in Tzav, in connection with the Tenufah of the Shelamim), "Yadav Rav Lo" (in Vayechi, in connection with Yehudah's B'rachah) and "Sikeil es Yadav" (ibid. in connection with the B'rachah of Menasheh and Efrayim) - twenty-four times.

(b) The problem Resh Lakish had with that was - that having just said that "Yadav" without a 'Yud' means 'two hands', why does the Torah ever need to write it with a 'Yud'?

(c) He caught Rebbi Elazar out with this Kashya, in that - the latter ought to have answered by confining Resh Lakish's principle to "Yadav" when it appears next to Semichah (but not to other places, such as the above).

(d) Having caught Rebbi Elazar out - his anger abated.

(e) He went on to refute a second Kashya from the Pasuk (in connection with Yehoshua) "Vayismoch es Yadav Alav Vayetzaveihu" - by confining his principle to Semichah on the head of an animal (whilst this Pasuk refers to Moshe leaning it on the head of Yehoshua).

(a) Our Mishnah now discusses the Chumros of Semichah over Tenufah and vice-versa. The only Chumra of Semichah over Tenufah is - that regarding a Korban belonging to Shutfim (partners), each Shutaf is obligated to perform Semichah, whereas one of them may perform Tenufah on behalf of all of them.

(b) Tenufah on the other hand, has three Chumros over Semichah. To begin with, it applies to Korbenos Tzibur as well as to Korbenos Yachid (whereas Semichah is restricted to a Korban Yachid). Generally, it applies to ...

1. ... (the Chazeh ve'Shok and the Eimurim) of a Shelamim, and ...
2. ... of the Korbenos Tzibur, to Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur (the Shalmei Tzibur that is brought on Shavu'os).
(c) It also applies to live animals as well as to Shechted ones. Again, the only Korban that is waved alive (as well as after it has been Shechted) is - the Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur.

(d) The third Chumra of Tenufah over Semichah is - that it pertains to Kodshim other than animals (e.g. to the Omer and the Sh'tei ha'Lechem, and to the Lachmei Todah and Lachmei Nazir).

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