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Menachos 42



(a) The Beraisa proves from the Pasuk "Va'yikacheinu be'Tzitzis Roshi" - that "Tzitzis" means 'Anaf' (individual threads).

(b) Abaye rules that one must separate them 'ki Tzutzisa de'Arma'i' - like the 'B'luris' (shock of hair) of a Nochri, which is stuck together next to the roots, but loose strands of hair on top.

(c) According to the Tana Kama in the Beraisa, if one attached the Tzitzis to the Keren or to the G'dil, they are Kasher.

1. 'Keren' - is the tip of the corner of the Beged ...
2. 'G'dil' - either the first few rows of material, which are reinforced to prevent the Beged from tearing easily, or the threads that protrude vertically from the warp.
(d) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov ' declares both of them Pasul.
(a) The author of the Beraisa which writes 'Tzitzis Tzerichah she'Tehei Notefes al ha'Keren' (meaning that the Tzitzis are attached above the Keren, which they touch as they hang down) is - Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov.

(b) His source for this ruling is the Pasuk - "al Kanfei Bigdeihem" (implying that they are attached to a point above the corner, and not to the corner itself).

(c) According to Rebbi Ya'akov Amar Rebbi Yochanan, the Tzitzis must be attached - at least the distance from the middle joint of the thumb to the tip of the thumbnail away from the edge of the garment.

(d) We need the rulings of both Rebbi Ya'akov and Rav Papa (who gave the Shi'ur earlier as within three finger-breadths). Because, if we had only been given the Shi'ur of ...

1. ... Rav Papa (but not that of Rebbi Ya'akov), we would have thought - that the closer the Tzitzis are to the edge of the garment, the better.
2. ... Rebbi Ya'akov (but not that of Rav Papa), we would have thought - that the further away they are from the edge, the better.
(a) When Rav Sama and Ravina were once sitting in front of Rav Ashi, Rav Sama noticed that hole on the corner of Ravina's Tzitzis had widened until it was (or that the edge of the corner had come apart, leaving) less than the 'M'lo Kesher Godel required by Rebbi Ya'akov between the hole and that rim of the Beged.

(b) When Rav Sama quoted Rebbi Ya'akov's previous ruling, Ravina replied - that this is only Lechatchilah, but that provided the Tzitzis were initially Kasher, they do not become Pasul if the measurements then diminish (like Girdumei Techeiles).

(c) To alleviate Rav Sama's embarrassment, Rav Ashi declared that one person in Eretz Yisrael is worth two from Bavel (and Ravina was from Eretz Yisrael).

(a) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov would fold the four Tzitzis into eight before placing them through the hole in the Beged - because the Pasuk "Gedilim Ta'aseh Lach al Arba Kanfos Kesuscha ... " implies that one should attach eight threads ("G'dil means four threads [i.e. two threads doubled], and Gedilim, eight [four threads doubled]) to the corner of the Beged.

(b) Then he passed the eight ends through the loop at the other end, and that is how they hung down from the Beged.

(c) Rebbi Yirmiyah from Difti attached eight Tzitzis to the Beged, instead of four - because he too explained "Gedilim" to mean eight threads but without tying them in the way that we explained (see also Tosfos DH 'T'manya'). Then he would double them, to form sixteen threads?

(d) Mar b'rei de'Revina used to do - like we do (attach four threads to the corner, and then double them, to form eight threads).

(a) When attaching the Tzitzis on to his Talis, Rav Ada bar Ahavah - would recited the Berachah of 'La'asos Tzitzis'.

(b) When Rav Nachman once came across him doing that, he reacted - by asking 'Now what's all this about Tzitzis?' (to make fun of him).

(c) This was based on a statement of Rav, who ruled - that attaching Tzitzis does not require a B'rachah.

(a) When Rav Huna died, Rav Chisda asked how Rav could have said such a thing, in view of another ruling of Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, who learned from the Pasuk "Daber el *B'nei Yisrael ... ve'Asu* Lahem Tzitzis" - that Nochrim are not eligible to attach Tzitzis.

(b) In that case, asked Rav Chisda - why does making Tzitzis not require a B'rachah?

(c) This Kashya is based on the principle - that any Mitzvah that can be performed by a Nochri, does not require a B'rachah; whereas one that cannot, does.

(d) Rebbi Meir rules in a Beraisa that in a town where there is no Mohel, if there is a choice between a Nochri doctor and a Kuti, it is preferable for the former to perform the Milah - because if the latter performs it, he will do so in honor of Har Gerizim (where their Temple was situated).

(e) According to Rebbi Yehudah - it is the Kuti who should perform it.

(a) One recites over the Milah - the B'rachah of 'al ha'Milah'.

(b) Posing a Kashya on Rav - from Rebbi Meir, in whose opinion a Nochri is permitted to perform the Milah (in spite of which one recites a B'rachah).

(c) We answer this Kashya by pointing out that it is aimed at Rav, who follows his own reasoning. Rav Papa in the name of Rav learns from the Pasuk "va'Atah es B'risi Tishmor" - that only a Yisrael may circumcise a Jewish baby, but not a Nochri (like Rebbi Yehudah).

(d) Rebbi Yochanan learns it from "Himol Yimol" - which he Darshens as 'ha'Mal Yimol', meaning that only someone who is himself obligated to be circumcised, may circumcise others.

(a) The Beraisa rules that 'Sukas Ovdei-Kochavim, Sukas Nashim, Sukas Beheimah ... ' - are all Kasher, provided they have sufficient S'chach.

(b) When a person comes to ...

1. ... builds himself a Sukah, he recites 'Shehechiyanu' (though we do not do this nowadays), but not 'La'asos Sukah'.
2. ... sit in his Sucah, he recites - 'Leishev ba'Sukah'.
(c) This supports Rav Chida's principle (according to Rav) - seeing as no B'rachah is recited over building a Sukah, because a Sukas Nochrim is Kasher.



(a) On the other hand, we query Rav Chisda's principle from Tefilin, from the Beraisa quoted by Rav Chin'na b'rei de'Rava from Pashranya, which rules that a Seifer-Torah, Tefilin and Mezuzos written by ...
1. ... a Miyn, a Masur or an Akum - is Pasul.
2. ... an Eved, a woman or a Katan - is Pasul too.
(b) The source for all this is - the 'Hekesh' "u'Keshartam" "u'Chesavtem", from which the Tana learns that whoever is not Chayav to put on Tefilin is not eligible to make them.

(c) We already cited Rav Chiya b'rei de'Rav Huna in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, regarding the B'rachah that one recites when putting on Tefilin shel Yad and Tefilin shel Rosh - implying that one does not recite 'La'asos Tefilin' when making them (despite the fact that a Nochri is not eligible to make them) ...

(d) ... a Kashya on Rav Chisda (in the name of Rav), who considers the two interdependent.

(a) We therefore change the criterion for which Mitzvos require a B'rachah. The reason that ...
1. ... Milah requires a B'rachah even though a Nochri is permitted to perform it is - because *it constitutes the completion of the Mitzvah*.
2. ...neither Sukah nor Tefilin requires a B'rachah ('La'asos Sukah' & 'La'asos Tefilin' respectively), the latter even though a Nochri is forbidden to perform it is - because *it does not* (i.e. it is only a Hechsher Mitzvah).
(b) And the reason that ...
1. ... Rav Chisda holds that Tzitzis requires a B'rachah ('La'asos Tzitzis) is because he holds - 'TzitzisChovas Talis Hu' (in which case it too, constitutes the completion of the Mitzvah).
2. ... Rav Nachman holds that it does not, because he holds - 'Tzitzis Chovas Gavra Hu' (and attaching the Tzitzis is only a Hechsher Mitzvah).
(c) Rav Mordechai cited Rav Yehudah Amar Rav differently. According to his version, the latter learns from the Pasuk "Daber el B'nei Yisrael ... Ve'asu Lahem Tzitzis" - that even others (Nochrim) are permitted to make Tzitzis for a Yisrael ...

(d) ... thereby resolving the contradiction in Rav with which we began - since it is now clear why (based on Rav Chisda's principle) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav exempted Tzitzis from a B'rachah.

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav disqualifies Tzitzis that comprise loose threads hanging from a woven fabric. He refers to them as 'Kotzin' - either because they stand to be cut off, or because they protrude from the Beged like Kotzin (thorns).

(b) He also incorporates Nimin (sewn threads that similarly extend from the garment) and Gardin - fringes.

(c) All of these are Pasul - because of "Ta'aseh", 've'Lo min he'Asuy' (see also Tosfos DH 'ha'Kotzim').

(a) On the other hand, Rav validates thread taken from Sisin (a ball of wool). When they told Shmuel of Rav's ruling, he retorted - that Tzitzis of Sisin are also Pasul, because they require Teviyah (spinning) li'Sheman.

(b) We conclude that this a Machlokes Tana'im. The Tana Kama of the Beraisa rules that Tefilin that one ...

1. ... overlaid with gold - are Pasul, because Tefilin must be covered by the same species as the Parshiyos (animal skin).
2. ... over which they placed the skin of a Tamei animal - are Pasul, because of the Pasuk in Bo "Lema'an Tih'yeh Toras Hashem be'Ficha" (from which we learn that holy articles may only be made of materials that are Kasher to eat.
(c) He permits covering the Tefilin however, with the skin of a Kasher animal, however. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel invalidates it - because Tefilin require Ibud (tanning) 'li'Sheman'.

(d) Shmuel (who requires Teviyah li'Sheman), now holds like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who requires Ibud li'Sheman), whereas Rav holds like the Chachamim.

(a) Abaye asked Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehudah how he prepared Techeiles. He replied that he took the blood of a Chilazon and dyes. These he ...
1. ... soaked in a caldron (see Tosfos DH 'Mishum she'Ne'emar'), from which he took a little ...
2. ... and placed it inside half an egg-shell into which he dipped a wad of hackled wool - to test for quality.
(b) The fact that the wad of cloth requires burning, teaches us that - testing disqualifies the Techeiles from use.

(c) Rav Ashi explains the statement that the dyeing must be done li'Shemah (not as an independent Limud, since they are really one and the same but) - as the reason for why testing invalidates the Techeiles.

(d) And we learn from the fact that the contents of the egg-sell need to be burned (and cannot be tossed into the caldron) - that even a small amount of tested Techeiles will disqualify the entire contents of the caldron (and does not become Pasul).

(a) Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel in a Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "K'lil Techeiles" - that all the Techeiles dye must go into the actual Techeiles (that it should not have been used for anything else first, and that testing will therefore disqualify it).

(b) Whereas Rebbi Yochanan ben Dahavai learns from the Pasuk in Terumah "ve'Tola'as Shani") - that even the second red dye from the Tola'as (after it has been used for something else) is eligible for the Tola'as Shani of the Bigdei Kehunah (i.e. that testing does not disqualify it); and the same will applies to Techeiles, that is mentioned in the same Pasuk.

(c) We learned in a Beraisa that Techeiles cannot be examined. Techeiles requires examination - to ensure that it is not a fake dye known as 'Kala Ilan'.

(d) The Tana therefore requires someone purchasing Techeiles to take care - to buy it from an expert (who knows that Kala Ilan is forbidden [see also Tosfos DH 've'Ein Nikchin']).

(a) The same Tana requires Tefilin to be purchased from an expert, even though they can be examined (for extra or missing letters) - to ensure that the skin was tanned li'Shemah (like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, whom we cited earlier on the Amud).

(b) And the Beraisa concludes 'Sefarim u'Mezuzos ... Nikchin mi'Kol Adam' - because Sifrei-Torah and Mezuzos do not require 'Ibud li'Sheman.

(c) The problem with the opening statement of the Beraisa 'Techeiles Ein Lah Bedikah' is - that we know for a fact that it can be tested, since various Chachamim did actually do so, as we shall now see.

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