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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
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Menachos 21


(a) Among the four things that do not require salt the Beraisa lists wine, blood and wood.
What is the fourth?

(b) Why can the author of the Beraisa not be Rebbi?

(c) Neither can the author be the Rabbanan of Rebbi, we declare, because the Beraisa includes Ketores.
What do the Rabbanan say that clashes with that?

(d) We therefore establish the author as Rebbi Yishmael B'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah, who learns from the P'rat, Davar ha'Mekabel Tum'ah, Olah le'Ishim and Yeshno al Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
What does he preclude from ...

  1. ... Davar ha'Mekabel Tum'ah?
  2. ... Olah le'Ishim?
  3. ...Yeshno al Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon?
(e) How will we reconcile what we just said about wood, with the Sugya in Pesachim, which explicitly includes Eitzim and Levonah in the Din of Tum'ah?
(a) The problem with the Tana's need to preclude Dam from Melichah is that, according to Ze'iri, this would appear to be obvious.
What did ...
  1. ... Ze'iri Amar Rebbi Chanina say about blood that has been cooked?
  2. ... Rav Yehudah Amar Ze'iri say about blood that has been salted?
(b) What is the reason for these two rulings?

(c) And what did Rav Yehudah himself say about limbs that one roasted before bringing them on the Mizbe'ach?

(d) According to Ze'iri then, why would the Tana even contemplate salting the blood?

(a) What does the Beraisa say about someone who eats blood that has been congealed by heating, or who drinks melted Cheilev?

(b) How does Rava reconcile Ze'iri Amar Rebbi Chanina with this Beraisa?

(c) What is the reason behind Rava's answer?

(a) We query Rava's answer, based on a ruling of Rebbi Yochanan.
What did Rebbi Mani reply, when Rebbi Mani asked him about someone who drinks congealed blood?

(b) So what is the Kashya?

(c) What was Rava's reaction to the Kashya?

(d) What did Abaye (who asked the initial Kashya) suggest to answer it? How did he suggest that we might establish ...

  1. ... the Beraisa?
  2. ... Rebbi Yochanan?
(a) This reminded Rava what he had heard from Rav Chisda. What did Rav Chisda say about someone who ate the congealed blood ...
  1. ... of Chata'os Chitzoniyos, based on the Pasuk in Vayikra "Ve'lakach ... Ve'nasan"?
  2. ... of Chata'os ha'Penimiyos, based on the Pasuk there "Ve'taval ... Ve'hizah"?
(b) How about someone who eats the congealed blood of Chulin?
(a) This is the opinion of Rava quoting Rav Chisda. Rava himself disagrees. On what grounds does he declare Chayav even someone who eats the congealed blood of Chata'os Penimiyos?

(b) What does Rav Papa extrapolate from Rava's ruling, regarding someone who eats the congealed blood of a donkey?

(c) What does Rav Gidal Amar Ze'iri say about blood that is wet or congealed with regard to Chatzitzah?

(d) How will Rav Gidal reconcile this with the Beraisa which declares that dried blood, ink, honey and milk are not Chotzetz?

(a) We already discussed the Pasuk in Vayikra "ve'Chol Minchascha ba'Melach Timloch". The Beraisa explains that "Timloch" comes to preclude 'Tevoneihu' (which we will discuss shortly).
What does the Tana learn from "ba'Melach"?

(b) And from "ve'Lo Sashbis Melach ... ", the Tana confines the Mitzvah to Melach Sedomis.
How does he learn this from there?

(c) What is the difference between Melach Sedomis and Melach Isteruknis?
Where is the latter taken from?

(d) From where do we learn that if there is no Melach Sedomis, the Kohanim may use Melach Isteruknis?

(a) What else does the Tana learn from "Takriv", besides the fact that 'Kol-she'Hu' will suffice?

(b) On what grounds does ...

  1. ... Abaye refute Rabah bar Ula's suggestion that when the Tana says 'Yachol Yetavneihu', he means that one should mix in lots of salt like 'straw in cement' ('Yachol Yisbonenu')?
  2. ... Rava refute Abaye's suggestion that he means that one should add row upon row of salt, like a building?
(c) How does Rav Ashi explain the Beraisa, according to Rava, who leaves the text as 'Tevoneihu' (or amends it to 'Yevonenu')?

(d) How are the limbs actually salted?

(e) What practical comment does Abaye make?

Answers to questions



(a) What distinction does the Beraisa draw between the salt on the limbs, and the salt on the ramp and on top of the Mizbe'ach?

(b) Why is there no Me'ilah in the case of the latter?

(c) How does Rav Masna extrapolate that Me'ilah does apply to the former, from the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Ve'hikravten Lifnei Hashem, Ve'hishlichu ha'Kohanim Aleihem Melach, Ve'he'elu Osam Olah la'Hashem"?

(a) What does the Mishnah is Shekalim say about Melach and Eitzim of Kodesh (out of seven items)?

(b) How does Shmuel restrict this concession?

(c) What do we initially think Shmuel meant when he said ...

  1. ... 'le'Korbanam'?
  2. ... 'Aval la'Achilah, Lo'?
(d) What do we ask from the fact that the salt was used to salt the skins?
(a) Salt, says the Beraisa, was deposited in three places.
For what was the salt used that was placed ...
  1. ... in the Lishkas ha'Melach?
  2. ... on the Kevesh?
  3. ... on top of the Mizbe'ach? What did they salt there, besides all the Menachos (that were burned), including the Kometz and the Levonah?
(b) Then what did Shmuel mean when he said 'le'Korbanam'?

(c) When he said 'Aval la'Achilah, Lo', why could he not have been referring to Achilas Chulin?

(d) Then to what was he referring?

(a) When someone brings a Minchah, who provides ...
  1. ... the Levonah?
  2. ... the wood?
(b) Why might we learn the salt from ...
  1. ... the wood rather than from the Levonah?
  2. .... the Levonah rather than from the wood?
(c) What do we now learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah "B'ris Melach Olam Hi" and "me'es B'nei Yisrael B'ris Olam" (in Emor, in connection with the Lechem ha'Panim)?
(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah in a Mishnah in Shekalim, quote ben Buchri as saying about Kohanim donating a half Shekel in Adar?

(b) If the Kohanim are not Chayav to donate a half-Shekel, why does ben Buchri need to tell us that it is not a sin if they do?

(c) What did Rav Mordechai quoting Rav Shisha b'rei de'Rav Idi, extrapolate from the current Machlokes Tana'im, regarding Beis-Din's special dispensation permitting the Kohanim to use the salt?

(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai, a Kohen who fails to give half a Shekel has sinned.
How does ...
  1. ... he learn this from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa (in connection with the Machtzis ha'Shekel) "Zeh Yitnu"?
  2. ... ben Buchri learn his opinion from the Pasuk there (in connection with the counting) "Kol ha'Over al ha'Pekudim"?
(b) What ultimately happens to the Omer, the Sh'tei ha'Lechem and the Lechem ha'Panim?

(c) According to Raban Yochanan ben Zakai, what problem did the Kohanim have with that, that prompted them not to donate their half-Shekalim?

(d) Was this justifiable?

Answers to questions

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