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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Menachos 72



(a) Our Mishnah learns from the Pasuk "Reishis *Ketzirchem*" (and not "ha'Katzir") - that the prohibition of cutting the crops before the Omer doe s not pertain to 'K'tzir Mitzvah', such as for a Beis Aveil or a Beis-Hamedrash, as we learned there.

(b) This might also pertain to 'Kotzrin Mipnei ha'Neti'os' - assuming that one is permitted to cut them in order to avoid Kil'ayim.

(c) The reason for that might also be - due to the fact that the crops of that location are not eligible for the Omer (as we already explained).

(d) The Tana then forbids leaving them as tied sheaves - in order to make a Shinuy (to restrict the concession by doing it in an unusual way).

(a) Bedi'eved, our Mishnah permits bringing the Omer from barley that has already been cut, from dry barley and from barley that was cut by day. The Tana learns all three - from "ve'Im Takriv" (written in connection with the Omer) - because, the fact that the Torah writes later in the same Pasuk "*Takriv* es Minchas Bikurecha' renders the first "Takriv' superfluous.

(b) The Tana also learns 'Kol-Shehu' and 'mi'Kol Makom' from the same source. 'Kol-Shehu' refers to barley that has already been cut, 'mi'Kol Makom' - to barley that grew far Yerhushalayim. Both are Kasher in case of emergency.

(c) Besides the obligation to cut the Omer even on Shabbos (should Pesach fall on Friday), we also learn from there - that in case of emergency, the Kohen may even bring the Omer that became Tamei.

(a) The Mishnah in Megilah permits two 'Avodos' to be performed at night-time. One of them is cutting the Omer, the other - the burning of the Chalavim and the Eivarim.

(b) The Tana presents the principle - that all Mitzvos that are performed specifically by day may be performed all day; whereas those Mitzvos that are performed by night, may be performed all night.

(c) We learn from the Hekesh of the Mitzvos that are performed by night to those that are performed by day - that just as the latter are Pasul even Bedieved, so too are the former, clashing with our Mishnah - which validates Niktzar ba'Yom Bedieved.

(d) We reconcile the two by establishing the author of the Beraisa as Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, whereas the author of our Mishnah - is Rebbi.

(a)If the Omer became Tamei as the Kohen was bringing it, assuming that no other barley is available, both Rebbi and Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon agree that one tells the Kohen - to better remain silent and to continue with what he is doing (due to the Limud from "ve'Im Takriv that we just learned).

(b) If however, there is more barley available, Rebbi rules that he has to bring it - even if the barley has not yet been cut, and it means cutting it now (in daytime).

(c) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon disagrees with Rebbi, because he holds that - all the Torah's specifications regarding the Omer apply Bedieved too (and it is therefore forbidden to cut the Omer in daytime).

(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan establishes Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon like ...
1. ... his father's Rebbi, Rebbi Akiva, who rules in the Mishnah in Pesachim (in connection with the B'ris Milah) - that any Melachah that could have been performed before Shabbos, does not override Shabbos (if it was not).
2. ... Rebbi Yishmael, who Darshens the Pasuk "be'Charish u'va'Katzir Tishbos" to mean - that Katzir, like Charish (which is always Reshus [not a Mitzvah]), does not override Shabbos, when it is Reshus, precluding Katzir shel Mitzvah (i.e. that of the Omer, which overrides Shabbos.
(b) This proves that Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon must hold that if the Omer is cut not according to the Torah's specification, it is Pasul (not like our Mishnah) - because otherwise, it would not override Shabbos (like Rebbi Akiva, as we just explained).

(c) The problem with the reference to Rebbi Akiva as the Rebbi of Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon's father is - that this implies that Rebbi did not enjoy the same distinction; whereas we know that Rebbi learned under Rebbi Shimon, making Rebbi Akiva his Rebbe's Rebbi too.

(a) Rebbi testified that, when the Talmidim were learning before Rebbi Shimon in Teko'a, and he needed oil and a towel whilst bathing - they would bring him these articles via the Chatzer, the roof-tops and the enclosures along the way ...

(b) ... because they are all considered one domain as far as Keilim that were lying in one of them when Shabbos enters is concerned.

(c) So we equate Rebbi with another statement of Rebbi Shimon - who permits burning the Chalavim and the Eivarim throughout Shabbos, even though they may still be burned after nightfall, due to the principle 'Chavivah Mitzvah be'Sha'atah' (that a Mitzvah is more precious when it is performed in its right time Lechatchilah).

(a) By equating Rebbi with that statement of Rebbi Shimon, we have explained why Rebbi holds that even a Mitzvah that could have been performed before Shabbos, overrides Shabbos if it was not.

(b) But this poses a Kashya on Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon - who must have known this, yet he would have forbidden cutting the Omer on Shabbos if not for the fact that it may not be cut beforehand.

(c) To answer this Kashya, we justify Rebbi Shimon's stringent ruling by Ketziras ha'Omer, by differentiating between the burning of the Chalavim and the Eivarim only overrides Shabbos - which only overrides Shabbos because we already had no choice but to override Shabbos with regard to the Shechitah (since that cannot be performed in advance), and it (seeing as it does not share this distinction).

(d) Seeing as Rebbi cannot deny this distinction, we are forced to say that since Ketziras ha'Omer is Kasher by day - it does not override Shabbos.




(a) We reconcile our conclusion that, according to Rebbi, the cutting of the Omer does not override Shabbos ...
1. ... with the various Mishnahs in 'Kol ha'Menachos' earlier, which discuss how the Omer was brought on Shabbos (e.g. 'va'Chachamim Omrim, Echad Shabbos ve'Echad Chol, mi'Shalosh Hayah Ba)' - by establishing them not like Rebbi.
2. ... with our Mishnah 'Niktzar be'Yom, Kasher ve'Docheh es ha'Shabbos' - by establishing the Mishnah (which clearly follows the opinion of Rebbi, not with regard to the cutting of the Omer, but) - with regard to Hakravah (which cannot be performed earlier).
(b) We query this however, from a Beraisa, which learns from the word "be'Mo'ado" - written in connection with both the Tamid and the Pesach, "be'Mo'ado, Afilu be'Shabbos ... Afilu be'Tum'ah'.
(a) The Tana then learns from the Pasuk "Eileh Ta'asu la'Hashem *be'Mo'adeichem*" that the same applies to other Korbenos Tzibur, and from the Pasuk there "Vayedaber Moshe es *Mo'adei* Hashem el B'nei Yisrael" - that it also incorporates the Omer and that what comes with it, and the Sh'tei ha'Lechem and that what comes with them.

(b) 'That what comes with it/them' comes to include - the lamb that accompanies the Omer and the two lambs that accompany the Sh'tei ha'Lechem.

(c) This cannot refer to the Hakravah of those items - since the Sh'tei ha'Lechem are eaten by the Kohanim and not sacrificed.

(d) So we suggest that it refers ...

1. ... to grinding and sifting the Sh'tei ha'Lechem.
2. ... cutting the Omer (posing a Kashya on our interpretation of Rebbi, who holds that the cutting of the Omer does not override Shabbos).
(a) To answer the Kashya, we establish the Din of the Omer overriding Shabbos with regard to baking, which must take place on Shabbos - because that is what sanctifies the loaves.

(b) And, unlike the cutting, it could not take place before Shabbos - because once it has been sanctified, it will become Pasul be'Linah (by remaining intact overnight).

(c) We already discussed the Beraisa where, according to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, the Kivsei Atzeres sanctify the Sh'tei ha'Lechem only if both the Shechitah and the Zerikas ha'Dam have been performed li'Sheman. Rebbi holds ...

1. ... 'Kadash ha'Lechem' also in the case where - the Kohen performed the Shechitah she'Lo li'Shemah, and the Zerikah li'Shemah.
2. ... 'Kadosh ve'Eino Kadosh' - in the reverse case, where he performed the Shechitah li'Shemah, but not the Zerikah.
(d) In any event, Rebbi seems to hold that it is the Shechitah of the lambs that sanctifies the loaves, and not the oven. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak amends the Beraisa to read (not 'Kadash' and 'Lo Kadash' (this latter ruling pertains to where neither the Shechitah nor the Zerikah was performed 'li'She'mah', but ) - 'Hukbe'u' (which means that those loaves are now attached to the lambs that were Shechted) and 'Lo Hukbe'u'.

(e) The ramifications of 'Hukbe'u' are - that the loaves may no longer accompany any lambs other than these.

****** Hadran Alach 'Rebbi Yishmael' *****

***** Perek ve'Eilu Menachos Nikmatzos *****


(a) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah lists Minchas So'les, Machavas, Marcheshes, Chalos, Rekikin, Ovdei-Kochavim, Nashim, ha'Omer, Chotei and Kena'os - as the Menachos that require a. Kemitzah and b. the Shirayim to be eaten by Kohanim.

(b) Rebbi Shimon includes a Minchas Chotei of Kohanim among the Menachos - that require Kemitzah, even though the two parts are then brought on the Mizbe'ach (independently, and not eaten).

(c) The Chachamim hold - that any Minchah that is not eaten, does not require a Kemitzah to be taken from it either, but is burned whole on the Mizbe'ach.

(d) When Rav Papa says that whenever this list appears it always incorporates ten types of Minchah, it comes to exclude - Rebbi Shimon, in whose opinion there are eleven, in that he incorporates a Minchah comprising half loaves and half wavers (as we learned above).

(a) The Torah explicitly writes - that the Shirayim are eaten by the Kohen, by the first five cases in our Mishnah, but not by the others.

(b) And we include a Minchas Ovdei-Kochavim and a Minchas Chotei - from the Pasuk "ve'Zos Toras ha'Minchah ... ve'ha'Noseres Mimenah Yochlu Aharon u'Vanav".

(c) It is obvious that, according to the Rabbanan, the Shirayim of a Minchas Chotei is also eaten by Kohanim - because the Torah requires a Kemitzah to be taken from it.

(d) Consequently, when we ask 'Minalan' - we must be referring to Rebbi Shimon, in whose opinion the Torah does not necessarily equate the Kemitzah with the Kohanim eating the Shirayim.

13) According to Rebbi Shimon, the Pasuk "ve'Chol Minchah Belulah ba'Shemen va'Chareivah le'Chol B'nei Aharon Tih'yeh" is not needed for itself, since we already know that the Kohanim receive a portion of all the Minchos Chitin (as we just explained). Chizkiyah therefore explains that from ...
1. ... "Be'lulah ba'Shemen" - we incorporate the Minchas ha'Omer (which consists of barley and which contains Shemen) in the Din of Minchas Chitin, whose Shirayim are given to the Kohanim; whereas from ...
2. ... "va'Chareivah" - we learn that the same applies to Minchas Kena'os (which consists of barley and which does not contain Shemen).
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