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Makos 10

1) [line 1] "GIL'AD KIRYAS PO'ALEI AVEN, AKUBAH MI'DAM." - "Gil'ad is a city of those who work iniquity, full of people who pursue others to shed blood." (Hoshea 6:8)

2) [line 2] OKVIN - pursue, hunt down
3) [line 6] "UCH'CHAKEI ISH GEDUDIM, CHEVER KOHANIM, DERECH YERATZCHU SHECHMAH; KI ZIMAH ASU." - "And as troops of robbers wait for a man [to rob], so does a band of Kohanim murder *as one group*, for they devised a plot." (Hoshea 6:9) - Even though the word "Shechmah" means "as one group," or "with one resolution," Abaye uses it homiletically to refer to the city named Shechem.

4) [line 9] BEIS HA'GERANOS - the threshing floors
5) [line 10] "... VA'ALEIHEM TITNU ARBA'IM U'SHTAYIM IR." - "... and in addition, you shall give forty-two cities [to the Leviyim]. (Bamidbar 35:6)

6) [line 15] PARVADAHA / PARVARAHA - its suburbs

7) [line 15] "V'ES SEDEH HA'IR V'ES CHATZEIREHA NASNU L'CHALEV BEN YEFUNEH [BA'ACHUZASO.]" - "But the fields of the city, and its villages, they gave to Kalev the son of Yefuneh [for his possession.]" (Yehoshua 21:12)

8) [line 17] "V'AREI MIVTZAR, HA'TZIDIM, TZER V'CHAMAS, RAKAS V'CHINARES. VA'ADAMAH... V'KEDESH V'EDRE'I V'EIN CHATZOR." - "And fortified cities, ha'Tzidim, Tzer and Chamas, Rakas and Kineres. And Adamah... and *Kedesh* and Edre'i and Ein Chatzor." (Yehoshua 19:35-37)

9a) [line 20] TIRIN KETANIM - small fortresses (the Girsa in Erchin 33b is *KEFARIM KETANIM* - small villages -- CHESHEK SHLOMO)
b) [line 20] KERACHIM GEDOLIM - large walled cities
c) [line 21] AYAROS BEINONIYOS - middle-sized cities without walls

10a) [line 22] SELIKUM - (a) Salcha, which is translated as Salvakia by the Targum Yonasan ben Uziel (Devarim 3:10), a city in the Golan (ARUCH Erech Salik); (b) Seleucia, ancient city of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). (See Background to Bava Basra 52:9 for a short history of Seleucia.) (MUSAF HE'ARUCH)
b) [line 22] AKRA D'SELIKUM - a small city near Selikum (see previous entry) known as Akra d'Selikum

11) [line 24] MEVI'IN LAHEM MAYIM - they bring water to them (by constructing aqueducts)

12) [line 24] SHEVAKIM - markets
13) [line 25] UCHLUSIN - soldiers
14) [line 25] DIYUREIHEN - residents
15a) [line 26] KELEI ZAYIN - weapons
b) [line 26] KELEI METZUDAH - traps

16) [line 26] EIN MAFSHILIN L'SOCHEN CHAVALIM - no one may twist ropes in them (since this process needs large spaces, which would result in a large city that would attract many people, including the Go'el ha'Dam -- ARUCH LA'NER)

17) [line 27] "... V'NAS EL ACHAS MIN HE'ARIM HA'EL VA'CHAI." - "[So that the killer, who killed his neighbor unintentionally, and did not hate him in times past,] might flee there; and that by fleeing to one of these cities he might live." (Devarim 4:42)

18) [line 29] HAGUN - proper, righteous
19) [line 30] "ES BETZER BA'MIDBAR..." - "[The cities of refuge are:] Betzer in the wilderness, [in the plain country, of the tribe of Reuven; and Ramos in Gil'ad, of the tribe of Gad; and Golan in Bashan, of the tribe of Menashe.]" (Devarim 4:43)

20) [line 30] U'CHESIV BASREI, "V'ZOS HA'TORAH..." - and it states immediately afterward, "And this is the Torah..." (to indicate that the Torah, also, is a means of refuge)

21) [line 32] BEI RAV - in the Beis Midrash
22) [line 33] SALIK V'YASIV A'ARZA D'VEI RAV - he went up into and sat (a) in the cedar tree of the Beis Midrash; (b) on the cedar pillar or beam of the Beis Midrash

23) [line 33] PAKA ARZA - (a) the cedar tree broke, blew up; (b) the cedar pillar or beam of the Beis Midrash cracked

24a) [line 36] HAZRE'ACH SHEMESH LA'ROTZCHIM - make the sun rise for the [unintentional] killers (i.e. make sure that the cities that you separate are equipped with the necessities that the Gemara just mentioned)
b) [line 36] HIZRACHTA SHEMESH LA'ROTZCHIM - you made the sun rise for the [unintentional] killers (i.e. you made sure that the cities that you separated were equipped with the necessities that the Gemara just mentioned)

25) [line 37] "OHEV KESEF LO YISBA KESEF; U'MI OHEV BE'HAMON LO SEVU'AH, [GAM ZEH HEVEL.]" - "He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he who loves abundance with gain, [this also is vanity.]" (Koheles 5:9)

26) [line 42] SIMAN ASHI LILMOD RAVINA LILAMED - this is a mnemonic device to remember the names of the two Amora'im who are mentioned in the following lines of the Gemara and the topic of their statements. It stands for Rav *Ashi* Amar, Kol ha'Ohev *Lilmod*... (line 42) and *Ravina* Amar, Kol ha'Ohev *Lilamed*... (line 45)

27) [line 43] "CHEREV EL HA'BADIM V'NO'ALU..." - "A sword is upon the liars; and they shall become fools..." (Yirmeyahu 50:36) - The Gemara interprets the word "ha'Badim," as "those who are [learning Torah] by themselves."

28) [line 43] SONEIHEM SHEL TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM - (lit. those who hate Talmidei Chachamim) a euphemism for the Talmidei Chachamim

29) [line 44] BAD B'VAD - individually (Bad = an individual stalk, a twig)
30) [line 44] "... ASHER NO'ALNU VA'ASHER CHATANU." - "[And Aharon said to Moshe, 'Oh, my lord, I beg you, do not cast a sin upon us,] because we have done foolishly, and because we have sinned." (Bamidbar 12:11)

31) [line 45] "NO'ALU SAREI TZO'AN [NISE'U SAREI NOF, HIS'U ES MITZRAYIM PINAS SHEVATEHA.]" - "The princes of Tzo'an have become fools, [the princes of Nof are deceived; they have also made Egypt go astray, even those who are the mainstay of its tribes.]" (Yeshayah 19:13)

32) [line 48] SHA'AREI YERUSHALAYIM SHE'HAYU OSKIM BA'TORAH - the Batei Midrash (lit. gates) of Yerushalayim in which the scholars were learning Torah diligently


33) [line 1] PARASHAS DERACHIM - a crossroads
34) [line 5] "TOV V'YASHAR HASH-M, AL KEN YOREH CHATA'IM BA'DARECH." - "Good and upright is HaSh-m, therefore he instructs sinners in the [righteous] way." (Tehilim 25:8)

35) [line 7] "VA'ASHER LO TZADAH VEHA'ELOKIM INAH L'YADO..." - "And if a man does not lie in wait, but HaSh-m has caused it (the accidental murder) to come into his hand; [then I will appoint you a place where he shall flee.]" (Shemos 21:13)

36) [line 8] "KA'ASHER YOMAR MESHAL HA'KADMONI, ME'RESHA'IM YETZE RESHA..." - "As the Ancient Proverb (a reference to the Torah) states, 'Wickedness proceeds from the wicked...'" (Shmuel I 24:14)

37) [line 13] PUNDAK - an inn
38) [line 18] "LO SELECH IMAHEM" / "KUM LECH ITAM" - "Do not go with them" (Bamidbar 22:12) / "Get up and go with them" (Bamidbar 22:20) - HaSh-m said these words to Bil'am.

39) [line 19] "... ANI HASH-M ELOKECHA, MELAMEDCHA L'HO'IL, MADRICHACHA B'DERECH TELECH." - "[Thus says HaSh-m, your redeemer, the Holy One of Yisrael;] I am HaSh-m, your G-d, Who teaches you for your benefit, Who leads you by the way that you should go." (Yeshayah 48:17)

40) [line 20] "IM LA'LETZIM HU YALITZ VELA'ANAVIM YITEN CHEN." - "He (HaSh-m) scoffs at the scoffers and gives grace to the humble." (Mishlei 3:34) - Since HaSh-m scoffs at the Leitzim, He holds back Divine assistance and does not prevent their spiritual downfall

41) [line 21] "... V'LO EIN MISHPAT MAVES..." - "[Lest the avenger of the blood pursue the slayer, while his heart is hot, and overtake him, because the way is long, and slay him;] though he was not deserving of death, [since in times past he did not hate him.]" (Devarim 19:6)

42) [line 31] HARBEH SHELICHUS OSAH - (lit. agency does much) sending emissaries at times accomplishes more than what would have been accomplished by the sender (the Girsa in RASHI DH Harbeh should be changed from "u'Miskabelim *Al Yedei Harbeh* Sheluchim to "u'Miskabelim *Harbeh Al Yedei* Sheluchim" -- RASHASH)

43) [line 32] V'HA TANYA - (this is a statement, not a question)
44) [line 40] "V'DIBER B'OZNEI ZIKNEI HA'IR HA'HI ES DEVARAV" - "[And when he who flees to one of those cities shall stand at the entrance of the gate of the city,] and shall declare his cause in the ears of the elders of that city, [they shall take him into the city to them, and give him a place, that he may live among them.]" (Yehoshua 20:4)

45) [line 40] LO SHE'HUSHVU DIVREIHEN LI'DEVARAV - and not that his words should match their words, i.e. that they are killers just like him (with regard to the fact that the Gemara brings a proof for a *city* that has a majority of killers from a verse that describes the *elders* of the city, see RITVA (end of 9b); ARUCH HA'SHULCHAN Choshen Mishpat 425:56; ARUCH LA'NER)

46) [line 41] ZEKENIM - elders

47) [line 45] BEN SORER U'MOREH - the "stubborn and rebellious son"
(a) A boy can become a Ben Sorer u'Moreh (Devarim 21:18-21) from the time that he shows signs of puberty (when two hairs grow) until he reaches a further stage of development (approximately three months later). He must steal money from his father, and buy 50 Dinars of meat, eating it rare outside his father's property and in bad company. He must also drink half a log (5 oz.) of wine with the meal. It is therefore forbidden for a boy of this age to eat such a meal at any time (SEFER HA'MITZVOS, Lo Sa'aseh #195)
(b) A Ben Sorer u'Moreh is punished with Sekilah (stoning). Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili explains that since he is running after worldly pleasures, he will eventually deplete all of his father's possessions, and when there is nothing left, he will stand at a crossroads and steal from people. It is better to kill him when he is young and has few sins than to let him live and die a wicked man (Sanhedrin 72a).
(c) The Gemara (Sanhedrin 68b-72a) learns that there are additional conditions necessary to become a Ben Sorer u'Moreh, which are so numerous and intricate that it is unfeasible for this punishment ever to be executed.

48) [line 47] EGLAH ARUFAH
(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:
(b) Five elders (according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is the Halachah) of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked (see Background to Bava Metzia 30:12:b) to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

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