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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Bechoros 27

BECHOROS 27 - dedicated by Hagaon Rav Mordechai Rabin of London, now living in Yerushalayim.


(a) (Continuation of Beraisa): Regarding all Matanos, the giver has Tovas Hana'ah (as we now explain):
1. If a Yisrael separated Terumah, and Reuven (another Yisrael) offered him some money on condition that he will give the Terumah to a particular Kohen, e.g. Reuven's grandson, this is permitted.
2. It is forbidden for a Kohen (Shimon) to make such an offer to a Yisrael (since the Matanos could be given to Shimon himself, this resembles a Kohen helping in the granary).
(b) Question: Why does the Tana illustrate only Terumah?
(c) Answer: Terumah is Kedushas ha'Guf, the Kohen will not err to think that it became Chulin through a redemptive "sale";
1. Bechor (Ba'al Mum) and Zero'a, Lechayim and Kevah are Kedushas Damim - the Kohen might think that they became Chulin through this "sale" (Rashi - and he will not eat them with the proper grandeur; R. Gershom - he might feed them to dogs).
(a) (Rava): We are not concerned about a Kohen helping in the granary regarding Terumah of Chutz la'Aretz (which is mid'Rabanan).
(b) Rav Chama would give it to his servant (in lieu of wages).
(c) (Shmuel): Terumas Chutz la'Aretz is Batul in a simple majority of Chulin (Tosfos - aTamei Kohen may eat it, but it is forbidden to a Zar unless there are 100 times as much Chulin as Terumah; Rashi - it is permitted even to Zarim).
1. Rabah (a Kohen) would Mevatel it (in a majority of Chulin) and eat it when he was Tamei.
(d) When Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua received Terumah wine (of Chutz la'Aretz), he would Mevatel one ladle-full in two ladles of Chulin, [and remove one ladle from the mixture and treat it like Chulin; Rambam's text omits this];
1. From then on, he would [always consider the two (Rambam - three) remaining ladles to be Chulin, and] mix in a ladle [of Terumah, to Mevatel it,] and remove a ladle [and treat it like Chulin].
(e) (Shmuel): One may eat Tevel of Chutz la'Aretz, and leave over (Tosfos - a bit more than) the amount needed for Terumah and later designate (Tosfos - from) the remainder to be Terumah.
(f) (Shmuel): A Tamei Kohen may eat Terumas Chutz la'Aretz, except for one whose Tum'ah comes from his own body (e.g. Zav, Nidah);
1. Even such Teme'im are forbidden only to eat it; they may touch it.
(g) (Ravina): Therefore, a Nidah may separate Chalah for a young Kohen (under nine, for he has never had Keri (emissions); alternatively, an adult Kohen who immersed after Keri) to eat;
1. If no young Kohen is around, she takes it with a rod (used to stoke coals) and burns it (Rashi - after calling it Chalah, we minimize its contact with Tum'ah; Tosfos - she uses the rod to put it amidst the coals; alternatively, she burns it right after removing it from the wall of the oven);
2. She then separates a second Chalah, and gives it to any adult Kohen to eat - this is so people will not forget the [primary] Mitzvah of Chalah.
(h) Rav Nachman, Rav Amram and Rami bar Chama were on a ship. Rav Amram went to relieve himself; a woman came and asked if one may eat Terumas Chutz la'Aretz after immersing from Tum'as Mes, before nightfall.
(i) Rav Nachman: We do not have Mei Chatas nowadays (in Bavel), therefore he need not wait until night.

(j) Rami bar Chama: You should wait until Rav Amram returns before ruling!
(k) Rav Amram returned.
(l) (Rav Amram citing Rav): A Tamei Mes may immerse and eat Terumas Chutz la'Aretz immediately.
(m) The Halachah is not like Rav. (Most Meforshim - he need not immerse; Rashi - he must wait until night).
(n) (Mar Zutra): One who becomes Tamei through a Sheretz may immerse and eat Terumas Chutz la'Aretz immediately.
(o) The Halachah is not like Mar Zutra.
(a) (Mishnah): A Bechor is eaten within the year...
(b) Inference: The Mishnah continues, "If it developed a Mum within *its* year..." - this implies that we consider a year from its birth (as opposed to a calendar year, from Tishrei until Elul).
(c) Question: What is the source of this?
(d) Answer #1 (Rav): "Lifnei Hash-m Elokecha Sochalenu *Shanah v'Shanah*";
1. Question: What year enters another year?
2. Answer: The year from its birth enters the next calendar year, from Tishrei until Elul.
(e) (Bei Rav (Shitah Mekubetzes - Bei Rebbi) - Beraisa): "Shanah v'Shanah" - one day in a year is considered a year;
1. This teaches that a Bechor (offered in the Mikdash) is eaten for two days and a night. (It can be offered on the last day of its year, and eaten on that day and the morrow, which begins its second year.)
(f) Question: What is the source of [the Tana cited by] Bei Rav that we consider *its* year?
(g) Answer: They learn from other Kodshim.
(h) Question: What is the source for other Kodshim?
(i) Answer (Rav Acha bar Yakov): "Keves ben *Shenaso*" - its year, not the calendar year.
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