ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Zevachim 97
ZEVACHIM 97-98 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi
shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff
(a) According to Rebbi Tarfon in our Mishnah, a pot in which one cooked at
the beginning of Yom-Tov may be used without Merikah and Shetifah, until the
end of Yom-Tov. The Chachamim say - only until the next meal is due.
(b) When the Mishnah describes Merikah and Shetifah as 'ki'Merikas ha'Kos'
and 'ki'Shetifas ha'Kos' it means - that one is obligates to wash out the
inside of the vessel and the outside, like washing out the Kos of Birchas
(c) The Tana requires both Merikah and Shetifah to be in cold water (as we
explained a little earlier). As for a spit-rod and a grill - they require
Hag'alah in boiling water, he says (though we will query this later).
(a) In trying to find Rebbi Tarfon's source, we learn from the Pasuk
"u'Fanisa ba'Boker, ve'Halachta le'Ohalecha" - that the Torah considers all
the days of Yom-Tov like one day (in which case, Merikah and Shetifah are
unnecessary, as we learned in the Mishnah).
(b) We query this from Pigul and Nosar - which ought not to then not take
effect the whole Yom-Tov.
(a) When Rebbi Nasan said in a Beraisa 'Lo Amar Rebbi Tarfon Ela Zu
Bil'vad', he meant - that Rebbi Tarfon's Din is confined to Merikah and
Shetifah, and not to anything else (such as Pigul and Nosar, corroborating
(b) We finally base Rebbi Tarfon on a statement of Rav Nachman Amar Rabah
bar Avuhah, who said - that each day becomes Gi'ul for the preceding one, by
which he meant - that since Shelamim can be eaten for two days, the absorbed
Shelamim never get a chance to become Nosar. This is because on Yom-Tov, so
many Shelamim are brought, that on each subsequent day, the pot is used
again, and whatever is absorbed in the walls of the pot, has been drawn out
well before it becomes Nosar.
(c) That is all well and good with regard to Shelamim, which can be eaten
for two days. In the event that the pot is used to cook a Chatas - the
Kohanim are careful to cook a Shelamim in it on the same day.
(a) Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah explains the Chachamim, who say 'ad
Z'man Achilah' to mean - that once a pot has been used, they wait until the
next meal falls due, before making Merikah u'Shetifah.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Aba Yossi ban Aba learns this - from the
juxtaposition of the Pasuk "Kol Zachar ba'Kohanim Yochal Osah" to that of
"u'Morak ve'Shutaf ba'Mayim".
(a) Rebbi in a Beraisa holds 'Merikah u'Shetifah be'Tzonan' (like our
Mishnah). the Rabbanan say - Merikah be'Chamin, u'Shetifah be'Tzonan'.
(b) The Rabbanan's source - is 'Gi'ulei Nochrim, which are also Kashered in
(c) Rebbi objects to that - on the grounds that Merikah u'Shetifah do not
incorporate Hag'alah, but are performed in addition it.
(d) The Rabbanan extrapolate their ruling from the Torah's change of Lashon
from "u'Morak" to "ve'Shutaf" (implying that they are different).
(a) Rebbi explains the Torah's need to change from "u'Morak" to
"ve'Shutaf" - because a double Lashon ('u'Morak Morak' or 've'Shutaf
Shutaf') would have implied doing twice Merikah or twice Shetifah.
(b) Despite the fact that, according to Rebbi, both are done with cold
water, the Torah changes from "Morak" to "Shutaf" - to teach us that the
former must be done on the inside, and the latter, on the outside.
(a) Our Mishnah rules that in a case where Kodshim and Chulin or Kodshei
Kodshim and Kodshim Kalim were both cooked in a pot simultaneously - if the
former is 'Nosen Ta'am' (i.e. more than one in sixty), both must be eaten
with all its stringencies.
(b) Assuming that the more stringent one was ...
1. ... Kodshei Kodshim, this would entail - eating it in the Azarah for one
(c) When the Tana adds 'Ein Poslin be'Maga' he means - that if the more
stringent piece was Pasul, the more lenient one does not pass on the P'sul
to whatever touches it.
2. ... Kodshim Kalim, it would entail eating it in Yerushalayim for two days
only (unless it was a Korban Todah).
(d) He also rules that, in the same circumstances as the previous case, if
one hot Pasul loaf or piece of meat of Kodshim, touches another - only the
part where it touched becomes Asur.
(a) We learned in our Mishnah 'Im Yesh Bahen be'Nosen Ta'am, Harei ha'Kalim
Ne'echalin ka'Chamurin'. We amend the continuation 've'Ein Te'unin Merikah
u'Shetifah, ve'Einan Poslin be'Maga', by adding 'Im Yesh Bahen be'Nosen
Ta'am ... u'Te'unin Merikah u'Shetifah, u'Poslin be'Maga; Ein Bahen be'Nosen
Ta'am ... '.
(b) Abaye interprets 'Ein Te'unin Merikah u'Shetifah' to mean like Kodshei
Kodshim, but like Kodshim Kalim it does. Rava establishes the Mishnah - like
Rebbi Shimon, who exempts Kodshim Kalim from Merikah u'Shetifah, in which
case, it does not require Merikah u'Shetifah at all.
(c) Abaye's explanation poses the Kashya why our Mishnah needs to mention
both cases 'Kodshim ve'Chulin' and 'Kodshei Kodshim and Kodshim Kalim'.
There is no problem according to Rava - since in the first case, the pot
requires Merikah u'Shetifah like Chulin, whereas in the second, it does not.
(d) Despite the fact that, according to Abaye, either way, the pot requires
Merikah u'Shetifah like the more lenient one, nevertheless, having taught us
the Din by ...
1. ... Kodshim and Chulin, the Tana finds it necessary to add the case of
Kodshei Kodshim and Kodshim Kalim - to teach us that even Kodshim have the
power to negate Kodshim (even though they are to a point, the same species).
2. ... Kodshei Kodshim and Kodshim Kalim, the Tana finds it necessary to add
the case of Kodshim and Chulin, to teach us - that even Chulin have the
power to negate Kodshim.
(a) Based on the Pasuk "Kol Asher Yiga bi'Vesarah", the Beraisa learns from
the word ...
1. ... "bi'Vesarah" - that the Basar only renders Pasul food that actually
absorbs some of it (but not what merely touches it).
(b) The Pasuk is referring to a case - where one melted some fat of a Chatas
and smeared it on a piece of Shelamim meat.
2. ... "Yiga" - that only the area that is touched by it becomes Pasul, but
not the rest.
(c) In such a case, one would be obligated - to cut out the area that was
(d) One does not however - need to cut away any nerves, bones, horns or
hooves in that vicinity.
(a) The important principle that we learn from 'ad she'Yivla' is - 'Heter
Mitztaref le'Isur' by Kodshim (since the actual Isur is only a minimal
amount, and requires the Heter to supplement the Shi'ur of Nosen Ta'am.
(b) We cannot however, learn 'Ta'am ke'Ikar' from there - because the melted
fat is real substance and not just taste.
(c) We just learned that if the more stringent Korban is Pasul, the more
lenient Korban becomes Pasul too, and may not be eaten - because someone who
eats it contravenes the La'av of "Lo Sochal Kol To'evah", from which we
learn 'Kol she'ba'Kodesh Pasul, Ba ha'Kasuv Litein Lo Sa'aseh al Achilaso'
(anyone who eats Kodshim Pesulim, contravenes a La'av).
(d) We query this however, from the principle 'Asei Docheh Lo Sa'aseh'. The
Asei in question is - the Pasuk in Tetzaveh "ve'Achlu Osam Asher Kupar
(a) In our first answer, we explain that the current La'av is different than
most other La'avin, and cannot be overridden by an Asei - because it is a
La'av that pertains to the Beis-Hamikdash.
(b) We base this answer on the La'av of "ve'Etzem Lo Sishberu Bo", according
to Rebbi Shimon ben Menasya, who says - that the La'av applies even to bones
which contain marrow ...
(c) ... and which ought then to be permitted because of the Asei "ve'Achlu
es ha'Basar ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" (a proof that an Asei does not override a Lo
Sa'aseh in the Beis-Hamikdash).
(d) Rav Ashi, who disagrees with that, answers the Kashya, by quoting the
Pasuk 'Kol Asher Yiga bi'Vesarah *Yikdash*" - turning the prohibition of
eating Pasul Kodshim into a La'av plus an Asei, which a plain Asei can not
override under any circumstances.
(a) Until now, we have been discussing a Chatas Pasul, since that is what
the Torah is talking about. We apply it to other Kodshim - from the Hekesh
in Parshas Tzav "Zos ha'Torah, la'Olah ve'la'Minchah ... , which compares
all Kodshim to one another.
(b) The Hekesh actually incorporates all types of Korbanos. We learn from
Olah that all Korbanos require a K'li. This cannot be referring to bowls for
receiving the blood - since the same is also written in connection with
'Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur' (that are brought on Shavu'os).
(c) It is referring to - male Kohanim exclusively being permitted to eat
(d) We know that an Olah requires ...
1. ... a knife to Shecht - from the Pasuk by the Akeidah "Va'yikach es
ha'Ma'acheles" (which the Torah specifically refers to as an Olah). This
precludes a a sharp rock or cane (which are not K'lei Shareis).
2. ... a bowl to receive the blood - from the Pasuk by Matan Torah "Va'yasem
(a) Besides Minchah, the Torah writes in Tzav "Kol Zachar ba'Kohanim
Yochlenah" - by Chatas and Asham.
(b) Seeing as we already know that these two Korbanos can only be eaten by
male Kohanim, we learn from "ve'la'Minchah" - that the same applies to
Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur
(c) We reconcile this with the Drashah from the Pasuk (in connection with
the Minchah, the Chatas and the Asham) "ba'Kodesh ha'Kodashim Tochlenu ...
Kol Zachar Yochal Osah", from which we learn the same thing - by making this
a Machlokes Tana'im (one learns it from the one, and one, from the other).
(a) And from "Chatas" we learn - the current Halachah ('Mah Chatas
(b) We cannot learn it from Minchah, where the Torah also writes "Kol Asher
Yiga Bah Yikdash" - because the Minchah is softer than other Korbanos, in
which case we would not have extended 'Balu'a' to other, harder Korbanos.