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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Zevachim 53
ZEVACHIM 53 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel
Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays
that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) REGULAR "CHATA'OS"
(a) (Mishnah): The following apply to (outer) Chata'os of the
Tzibur (i.e. the goat brought every day of the festivals
and Rosh Chodesh) or a commoner:
2) UPPER AND LOWER BLOOD
1. They are slaughtered in Tzafon, Kabalah must be in a
Kli Shares in Tzafon;
(b) (Gemara) Question: How is blood put on a Keren?
2. The blood must be put on each of the four Keranos:
i. The Kohen ascends the ramp and walks
(counterclockwise) on the Sovev (the walkway
around the Mizbe'ach half-way up the
Mizbe'ach), putting on each Keren when he comes
to it, i.e. southeast, northeast, northwest and
3. He pours the Shirayim on the Yesod in the south;
4. Male Kohanim eat the meat within the hangings (of
the Mishkan -this corresponds to the Azarah of the
Beis ha'Mikdash), (raw or) cooked in any way, that
day and until half the following night.
(c) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan or R. Elazar): He puts blood on
one of the (two) outer faces of the Keren, i.e. within an
Amah of the (outermost) edge;
(d) Answer #2 (The other of R. Yochanan and R. Elazar): He
puts it along the (outermost) edge from the top down
(until the Sovev).
(e) R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says that blood is put only on
the Keren itself - clearly, this is like Answer #1;
(f) Rebbi permits putting blood below the Keren, as long as
it is above the Sovev - this could be like either answer:
1. Answer #1 allows putting the blood within an Amah of
the edge (within an Amah of the edge is considered
like the Keren) - Rebbi could permit this even below
(g) Question (against Answer #1 - Beraisa): To do Matanos Dam
of (outer) Chata'os of the Tzibur or of a commoner, the
Kohen ascends the ramp and walks on the Sovev to the
2. Answer #2 requires putting the blood of the edge,
for only the edge is called 'Keren'.
1. He immerses his right index finger in the blood in
the bucket, and uses his thumb and pinky to
constrict the blood so all will go on the edge,
until all the blood from his finger is finished;
(h) Answer: The first opinion means that he *may* put the
blood within an Amah of the edge, he admits that it is
best to put it on the edge.
2. He does the same on every Keren.
(a) Question: What is the argument of Rebbi and R. Elazar
(b) Answer (Beraisa): Upper blood (i.e. that should be put on
the top of the Mizbe'ach) must be put above Chut
ha'Sikra, lower blood must be put below Chut ha'Sikra;
(c) R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, the first clause is
correct regarding Olas ha'Of, but blood of Chatas Behemah
must be put on the Keranos.
(d) (R. Avahu): Rebbi learns from "Veha'Har'el (the
Mizbe'ach) Arba Amos ume'Ha'ari'el u'Lmalah ha'Keranos
1. Objection: The Mizbe'ach is more than four Amos (it
is 10 Amos tall, and 32 Amos square)!
(e) (Mishnah): A red string (the Chut ha'Sikra) girds the
Mizbe'ach in the middle, to distinguish between (the
place for) upper and lower blood.
2. Answer (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The Keranos occupy four
Amos on each side of the Mizbe'ach.
3. Objection: They do not (there are two Keranos on
each side, each occupies one Amah)!
4. Correction: Rather, the four Amos (from the top of
the Keren down to the Sovev) are considered like the
(f) Question: What is the source of this?
(g) Answer (Rav Acha bar Rav Katina): "V'Haysah ha'Reshes Ad
Chetzi ha'Mizbe'ach" - there must be a Mechitzah to
distinguish between upper and lower blood.
(h) (Mishnah): The Shirayim...
(i) (Beraisa): (Shirayim of outer Chata'os are poured) "El
Yesod ha'Mizbe'ach" - the southern Yesod;
1. Question: Perhaps it refers to the western Yesod -
we learn what is unspecified (outer Chata'os) from
the explicit (inner Chata'os - there it says "Pesach
(j) (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Shirayim of inner and outer
Chata'os are poured on the western Yesod;
2. Answer: (Indeed, we learn from inner Chata'os, but
differently -) just as Shirayim of inner Chata'os
are poured on the first Yesod encountered (after
leaving the Heichal), Shirayim of outer Chata'os are
poured on the first Yesod encountered (after
descending from the ramp).
(k) R. Shimon ben Yochai says, both are poured on the
(l) Question: We understand R. Yishmael - he learns the
unspecified from the explicit;
1. What is R. Shimon's reason?
(m) Version #1 - Answer (R. Asi): He holds that the entire
Mizbe'ach is north (of the opening to the Heichal;
alternatively, in the north half of the Azarah, the south
end corresponds to the middle of the opening);
(n) Version #2 - Answer (R. Asi): He holds that the entire
opening to the Heichal is south of the Mizbe'ach; (end of
1. (One who leaves the Heichal (in the middle of the
opening) encounters the southern side.)
(o) Version #1 - our text, Rashi - (Beraisa - Talmidim of R.
Yishmael): R. Shimon agrees that both are poured on the
3) OFFERING THE "OLAH"
1. A way to remember this - the many (Talmidim)
convinced the individual (R. Shimon) to retract.
(p) Version #2 - Tosfos - (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael):
Both are poured on the southern Yesod.
1. A way to remember this - the many (R. Shimon bar
Yochai, who is called by his own name and his
father's) convinced the individual (R. Yishmael) to
(a) (Mishnah): Olah is Kodshei Kodoshim, it is slaughtered in
Tzafon, Kabalah must be in a Kli Shares in Tzafon;
(b) The blood must be thrown twice (or on two Keranos), which
is effectively four Zerikos (this will be explained);
(c) It must be flayed and dissected, it is Kalil (entirely
burned on the Altar).
(d) (Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah mention that Olah
is Kodshei Kodoshim?
(e) Answer: It must teach this because the Torah does not
explicitly say that it is.
(f) (Mishnah): The blood must be thrown twice...
(g) Question: How is this done?
(h) Answer #1 (Rav): The Kohen puts on one outer face (of a
Keren), then on the other outer face (and then similarly
for the opposite Keren);
(i) Answer #2 (Shmuel): He throws the blood once (on each of
two opposite Keranos) at the edge, it flows on both
sides, like a (Greek) Gamma (an L shape).
(j) Tana'im argue as Rav and Shmuel argue.
1. (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps we do only one Zerikah
(of Dam Olah).
2. Rejection: "Saviv" (the blood must go all around,
i.e. on every side).
3. Suggestion: Perhaps we draw a line of blood all
around (with the finger)!
4. Rejection: "V'Zarak";
i. Conclusion: He throws the blood on the edge (of
two opposite Keranos), it flows on both sides,
like a Gamma.
5. R. Yishmael says, it says "Saviv", like it says
i. Just as four distinct Matanos are done for
Chatas, also regarding Olah.
6. Suggestion: Perhaps Matanos must be done on each of
the four Keranos, similar to Chatas!
7. Rejection: This cannot be, for all Zerikos of Olah
must be above the Yesod, and the southeast corner
does not have a Yesod.
8. Question: Why doesn't it have a Yesod?
9. Answer (R. Elazar): This is because that place
(where the Yesod would be if there was one) was not
in the portion of Binyamin (rather, in Yehudah's
portion; the (primary parts of the) Mizbe'ach must
be in Binyamin's portion).
i. (Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): The Mizbe'ach
occupied an Amah of Yehudah's portion.
ii. (R. Levi bar Chama): A strip of land extended
from Yehudah's portion into Binyamin's,
Binyamin (himself) was pained that his Shevet
did not receive it (Maharsha - in order that
the entire Mizbe'ach would have a Yesod) -
"Chofef Alav Kol ha'Yom".
iii. Therefore, Binyamin merited to become the host
of Hash-m - "U'Vein Keseifav Shachen". (The
order of events is difficult. Perhaps this
means, Hash-m knew that Binyamin would feel
more pain over this than any other Shevet,
therefore he merited... Iyun Yakov - because
Binyamin was pained, Hash-m made Binyamin His