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Previous daf Zevachim 98
ZEVACHIM 97-98 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi
shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff
1) [line 3] EIN SHEFIR V'SHILYA KADOSH BO - the [Eimurim (RASHI) of the]
Shefir and Shilya of a Korban Asham are not sanctified. The Shefir is the
outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form. The Shilya
is commonly translated as the placenta; a more accurate description is the
fetal membranes in which the fetus forms, which are attached to the placenta
(RASHI to Berachos 4a; TOSFOS to Nidah 18a DH Shilya and elsewhere in the
Rishonim). Since the Korban Asham is always a male, it has neither Shefir
2) [line 5] VELADOS KODASHIM B'HAVAYASAN HEN KEDOSHIM
There is an argument as to whether the offspring of animals of Kodshim
become themselves sanctified when they emerge from their mother's womb
("b'Havayasan"), or whether they become sanctified as soon as they are
formed in the womb ("b'Me'ei Iman").
3a) [line 7] MOSAREIHEN - their "remnants." This refers to parts of the
sacrifices that are left over (Nosar - see next entry) or extra animals that
were not used as sacrifices (Achrayus - see entry #3c).
b) [line 7] MOSAREIHEN - parts of the sacrifices that are left over (NOSAR)
(a) If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it
to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem
Ye'achel umi'Macharas, *veha'Nosar* Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." -
"It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day,
and anything that *remains* until the third day shall be burned in fire"
(Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11).
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after
Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav
for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im *Yivaser*
mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar
ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu." - "And if any flesh or bread of the
Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall
burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos
29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it
b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins
for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).
c) [line 7] MOSAREIHEN - extra animals that were not used as sacrifices
(a) A person who is obligated to bring a Korban has the option of setting
aside other animals as Achrayus ("insurance") for the animal that he intends
to bring as his sacrifice, in case the first animal gets lost.
(b) If an animal that was set aside as a Korban gets lost and the owner sets
aside another as his replacement Korban, and the first animal is
subsequently found, the replacement animal is termed the "Mosar" of his
4) [line 8] EIN BA'ALEI CHAYIM B'MOSAREIHEN - (lit. there are no animals in
their remnants) since no replacement animals were set aside for the Milu'im
Korbanos that were offered in the desert, and none of the Korbanos were
lost, the Mosar Milu'im did not consist of any animals
5a) [line 10] MEFAGLIN - (a) a Kohen who has intentions of "Chutz li'Zemano"
("Pigul" -- see Background to Zevachim 23:11a) with regard to a sacrifice
makes the Nesachim that are offered along with the sacrifice also prohibited
as Pigul (RASHI); (b) the blood of a sacrifice, about which a Kohen had
intentions of Chutz li'Zemano, makes the flesh of the sacrifice prohibited
as Pigul (TOSFOS DH Mah Shelamim)
b) [line 10] U'MISPAGLIN - (a) and the sacrifice itself, about which the
Kohen had intentions of Chutz li'Zemano, becomes prohibited as Pigul
(RASHI); (b) the flesh of the sacrifice, about which the Kohen had
intentions of Chutz li'Zemano, becomes prohibited as Pigul (TOSFOS DH Mah
6) [line 16] D'KARIR - (O.F. trestrest) it penetrates
7) [line 24] KEDI NASVAH - it was mentioned unnecessarily
8) [line 28] ETZBA LO BAYA CHEHUNAH - when the word "Etzba" appears in the
verse, it implies the right hand even without the word "Kohen" appearing in
the verse (as the Gemara describes earlier on 24b)
9) [line 1] DAM CHATAS L'MATAH - the blood of a Korban Chatas is below (it
fell on the garment first, and then the blood of a Korban Olah fell onto the
10) [line 5] HADAR PASHTAH - [after he asked the question,] he then answered
11) [line 6] CHOTZETZ - intervenes (and prevents the Tevilah from removing
the Tum'ah from the garment)
12) [line 6] TABACH - a slaughterer
13) [line 7] REVAV - a substance that is thick, viscous and loathsome, e.g.
fat or oil
14) [line 11] D'AVID HA V'HA - the case is where he does both this and this
(he is both a slaughterer and a Revav-dealer)
15) [line 12] TEIKU
The Pri Megadim (in his Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim,
#9) quotes and discusses various explanations for the word Teiku:
1. It is sealed in its container ("Tik") (ARUCH, Erech Tik).
*****PEREK #12 TEVUL YOM*****
2. Tehei Ka'i - "Let it (the question) stand" (MUSAF HA'ARUCH).
3. Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer
difficulties and questions" (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos).
16) [line 14] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for
Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with
regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul
Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches
Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned.
Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. If he enters the Mikdash,
however, he is Chayav Kares (see Background to Makos 8:18b). After the
following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If
he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see below, entry #17), he must wait until he
brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and
17) [line 14] MECHUSAR KIPURIM
(a) There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav,
Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan for a Zav,
or in a Mikvah for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the
Tevilah) and 3. a Korban.
(b) The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah.
They may not eat Kodshim or enter the Mikdash until they have brought their
Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a
Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah
until he brings his Korban.
18a) [line 14] EINAN CHOLKIN BA'KODASHIM - they do not receive a share in
the meat (and other parts) of Korbanos which are distributed to the Kohanim
b) [line 14] LE'ECHOL LA'EREV - that are to be eaten on the coming night
(this refers to the Tevul Yom only and not to the Mechusar Kipurim -- TOSFOS
DH Tevul Yom)
19) [line 15] ONEN
(a) A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his
seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e.
father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife). The Gemara later
(Zevachim 101a) learns the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti
Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos
that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen Onen is prohibited from doing the
Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7,
21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may not eat Kodshim,
Terumah and Ma'aser Sheni.
(b) Besides the prohibition against an Onen performing the Avodah, eating
Kodshim, etc. *mid'Oraisa*, the Rabanan extended the prohibitions even after
Aninus mid'Oraisa has passed. However, the Tana'im and Rishonim argue as to
the nature of this Gezeirah. They also argue as to whether Aninus mid'Oraisa
always applies for the entire day or for part of the day in certain cases.
With regard to these questions, Aninus may be broken into five time periods,
1. The day of death, before burial - according to all opinions Aninus
mid'Oraisa applies, as above.
20) [line 17] BA'ALEI MUMIN - Kohanim with a physical blemish that renders
them unfit to perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (BA'AL MUM)
2. The day of death, after burial - according to RASHI (to Pesachim 90b DH
ha'Onen, Zevachim 15b DH Onen) only Aninus mid'Rabanan applies. According to
the RAMBAN (Toras ha'Adam) Aninus mid'Oraisa still applies.
3. The night after the day of death (according to Rashi in #2, before
burial; according to Ramban in #2, even after burial) - the Tana'im argue if
the Aninus is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 99b). Most of the Rishonim
rule that the Aninus is not mid'Oraisa but rather mid'Rabanan.
4. The days after the day of death, even if the body has not been buried -
Aninus only applies mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 100b) until the end of the day of
burial. Also on the day of "Likut Atzamos" (when the remains of one of the
close relatives are exhumed and re-buried elsewhere), the Rabanan decreed
that the person is an Onen for that entire day.
5. The night after the day of burial - the Tana'im (Zevachim 100b) argue
whether the person is an Onen mid'Rabanan or not at all, and the Halachah
follows the opinion that he is not an Onen at all.
(a) It is forbidden for a Kohen who has a Mum (blemish) to do the Avodah in
the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether the Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish;
e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g.
boils). [According to the RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS this is counted as two
Lavin (#70 and 71). According to the RAMBAN they are counted as one Lav.]
(b) There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that
invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being
offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a
Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an
animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).
(c) If a Kohen who had a Mum did the Avodah: 1. if he had a Mum that
invalidates Kohanim and animals, his Avodah is Pesulah whether he did it
b'Shogeg or b'Mezid, and he is liable to Malkus if he did it b'Mezid
(according to the Rabanan. Rebbi rules that he is liable to Misah b'Yedei
Shamayim.); 2. if he had a Mum that only invalidates Kohanim, his Avodah is
Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6); 3. if he had a Mum that only
invalidates him because of Mar'is ha'Ayin, he does not receive Malkos and
his Avodah is Kesheirah. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276)
21a) [line 17] BA'ALEI MUMIN OVRIN - temporary blemishes (lit. "blemishes
that pass"); see above, entry #20:a
b) [line 18] BA'ALEI MUMIN KEVU'IN - permanent blemishes (lit.
"established blemishes"); see above, entry #20:a
22) [line 20] EIN LO BA'OROS - he has no share in the hides (OROS KODASHIM)
The hides of Korbenos Olah, Chatas, and Asham are given to the Kohanim. (In
contrast, the hides of Kodshim Kalim, such as Korbenos Shelamim, belong to
the owners of the Korban.)