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Zevachim 23

ZEVACHIM 21-23 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 2] "B'MICHSAS NEFASHOS" - "for a number of [specifically designated] individuals" (Shemos 12:4)

2) [line 2] EIN HA'PESACH NISHCHAT ELA LI'MENUYAV - the Korban Pesach is only slaughtered for the sake of its appointees (KORBAN PESACH: MINUY L'KORBAN PESACH)
(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah, "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." (Shemos 12:6). The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety. It is eaten with Matzah (unleavened bread) and Maror (bitter herbs), as the verse states, "And they shall eat the meat in that night, roast with fire, and Matzos; and with Merorim they shall eat it." (ibid. 12:8)
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be divided among many Chaburos that eat in different places -- Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d) The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Tamei and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).

3) [line 3] YACHOL YEHEI K'OVER AL HA'MITZVAH? - Could it be considered (only) as one who fails to perform a Mitzvah (and the Korban Pesach is considered valid)?

4) [line 4] "TACHOSU" - "[that number] shall be designated" (Shemos 12:4)
5) [line 5] HA'KASUV SHANAH ALAV L'AKEV - the verse repeated it (a word similar to the word "b'Michsas") in order to teach that it is mandatory [that the Korban Pesach be slaughtered only for its appointees] (see Pesachim 61a where the Girsa of the Gemara is "Talmud Lomar '*b'Michsas* Tachosu,' ha'Kasuv Shanah Alav l'Akev." This is also the Girsa of the Rome Manuscript #1 -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #90)

6) [line 12] NAZIR
(a) If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b) If an ordinary Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it (see Background to Sanhedrin 77:34) to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings the sacrifices of a Nazir who becomes Tamei and begins counting anew the days of Nezirus that he accepted upon himself. The sacrifices he brings are two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (young common doves), one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. (These Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving that he, and every Nazir, brings upon the completion of his Nezirus.)
(c) When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).

7) [line 20] NITMA TUM'AS HA'TEHOM - if he became Tamei as a result of Tum'as ha'Tehom (TUM'AS HA'TEHOM - a Tum'ah of the depths)
(a) Tum'as ha'Tehom is Tum'ah that was unknown or hidden, such as a corpse that was discovered lying beneath a road (TOSEFTA Zavin 2:5a). If a Nazir or a person bringing a Korban Pesach became Tamei through Tum'as ha'Tehom before offering his Korbenos Nazir or Pesach, he does not need to bring his Korbanos again. This law is learned from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.
(b) According to RASHI (Pesachim 81b DH she'Ein Lo), even if the person *definitely* became Tamei, his Korban is accepted, as long as he did not discover his Tum'ah until *after* the Shechitah of his Korban. According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Korban Pesach 6:11), only if the person is *not certain* that he is Tamei is his Korban offered, but they are offered even if the corpse was discovered *before* the Shechitah of his Korban. (See Insights to Pesachim 81:2.)

8a) [line 25] ZIVAH (ZAV)
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Pesachim 66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.

(a) A Zav (see previous entry), as well as a Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that is under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Zav.

9) [last line] "V'NASA AHARON ES AVON HA'KODASHIM..." - "[And it (the Tzitz -- forehead-plate) shall be upon Aharon's forehead,] and Aharon may bear any guilt incurred in the holy offerings, [which the people of Yisrael consecrate, for all of their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before HaSh-m.]" (Shemos 28:38)


(a) A Korban that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or offering it outside of the *area* designated for it becomes disqualified, and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from verse that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra 19:7, see below, entry #11a). Although Chazal usually use the term "Pigul" (putrid, rejected) to refer only to the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, our Gemara is based on the verse that also uses this term in reference to Chutz l'Mekomo (RASHI).
(b) If a person intentionally eats from a Korban that was offered with the intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from it unintentionally, he does not bring a Korban Chatas.

b) [line 1] HAREI KEVAR NE'EMAR "LO (YECHASHEV) [YERATZEH]" - the verse already states, "it will not be accepted" (Vayikra 19:7)

(a) A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam -- see Background to Zevachim 2:1:b) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, *Pigul* Yiheyeh." - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(b) Our Gemara uses the word "Nosar" to referring to Chutz li'Zemano (RASHI). (Chazal usually use the term "Pigul" to refer to this prohibition -- see TOSFOS DH Im Avon for an alternate Girsa). If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)

b) [line 2] HAREI KEVAR NE'EMAR "LO (YERATZEH) [YECHASHEV]" - the verse already states "it will not be counted [in his favor]" (Vayikra 7:18)

12) [line 4] ILEIMA (MI')TUM'AS SHERETZ - if you will say [that the Tzitz makes a Korban acceptable when it was offered by a Kohen, or by its owner, who was Tamei with] Tum'as Sheretz

13) [line 7] IY B'NAZIR - if it is referring to the Korban of a Nazir [when it says that a person who became Tamei with Tum'as Mes may send his Korbanos with someone else]

14) [line 8] L'OSEH PESACH - [rather, it is referring to] one who is preparing his Korban Pesach (and we see from here that one who is Tamei with Tum'as Mes *may* send his Korban Pesach with someone else, and thus this Beraisa refutes the view of Rami bar Chama)

15) [line 9] L'OLAM B'SHERETZ - certainly it is referring to [one who became Tamei with] Tum'as Sheretz [for whom the Tzitz is Meratzeh]

16a) [line 11] AVON HA'KODASHIM - [when the verse (Shemos 28:38; see above, entry #9) says that the Tzitz is Meratzeh for "Avon ha'Kodashim," it is referring to] the Tum'ah of the offerings themselves
b) [line 11] AVON MAKDISHIN - [when the verse (Shemos 28:38; see above, entry #9) says that the Tzitz is Meratzeh for "Avon ha'Kodashim," it is *not* referring to] the Tum'ah of those who sanctify the offerings (i.e. the Kohen or the owner of the Korban)

17) [line 16] "[KI VO BACHAR...] LA'AMOD L'SHARES [B'SHEM HASH-M, HU U'VANAV KOL HA'YAMIM.]" - "[For HaSh-m has chosen him...] to stand to minister [in the Name of HaSh-m, him and his sons forever.]" (Devarim 18:5)

18) [line 18] "HA'OMDIM" - "[When the Levi will come from one of your cities, from all of Yisrael, where he lives, and he comes with all the desire of his soul to the place that HaSh-m will choose. Then he shall serve in the name of HaSh-m, his G-d; like all of his brothers, the Leviyim,] who stand [there before HaSh-m.]" (Devarim 18:6-7) - These verses refer to the Kohanim as "Leviyim."

19) [line 21] MAH ZAR B'MISAH - just as a non-Kohen is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (death at the hands of HaSh-m -- Bamidbar 18:7, and Sanhedrin 83b)

20) [line 21] ALAMAH - why?
21) [line 23] B'AZHARAH - he transgresses a Lav (and is not punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, but rather with Malkus)

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