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Previous daf Zevachim 23
ZEVACHIM 21-23 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
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1) [line 2] "B'MICHSAS NEFASHOS" - "for a number of [specifically
designated] individuals" (Shemos 12:4)
2) [line 2] EIN HA'PESACH NISHCHAT ELA LI'MENUYAV - the Korban Pesach is
only slaughtered for the sake of its appointees (KORBAN PESACH: MINUY
(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth
of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah, "and the whole
assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening."
(Shemos 12:6). The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its
first year that is roasted in its entirety. It is eaten with Matzah
(unleavened bread) and Maror (bitter herbs), as the verse states, "And they
shall eat the meat in that night, roast with fire, and Matzos; and with
Merorim they shall eat it." (ibid. 12:8)
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the
fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable
to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to
the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy."
Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a
k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is
sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that
specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least
a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain
that a single Pesach may be divided among many Chaburos that eat in
different places -- Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be
broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d) The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach.
Nochrim, people who are Tamei and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited
from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).
3) [line 3] YACHOL YEHEI K'OVER AL HA'MITZVAH? - Could it be considered
(only) as one who fails to perform a Mitzvah (and the Korban Pesach is
4) [line 4] "TACHOSU" - "[that number] shall be designated" (Shemos 12:4)
5) [line 5] HA'KASUV SHANAH ALAV L'AKEV - the verse repeated it (a word
similar to the word "b'Michsas") in order to teach that it is mandatory
[that the Korban Pesach be slaughtered only for its appointees] (see
Pesachim 61a where the Girsa of the Gemara is "Talmud Lomar '*b'Michsas*
Tachosu,' ha'Kasuv Shanah Alav l'Akev." This is also the Girsa of the Rome
Manuscript #1 -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #90)
6) [line 12] NAZIR
(a) If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time
period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person
stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of
time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut
his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse;
or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER
HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the
Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b) If an ordinary Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the
same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled
with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it (see Background to
Sanhedrin 77:34) to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he
shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings the sacrifices
of a Nazir who becomes Tamei and begins counting anew the days of Nezirus
that he accepted upon himself. The sacrifices he brings are two Torim
(turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (young common doves), one as a Chatas and
one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. (These
Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving that
he, and every Nazir, brings upon the completion of his Nezirus.)
(c) When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three
sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram
as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of
Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos
(unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves
off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a
of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).
7) [line 20] NITMA TUM'AS HA'TEHOM - if he became Tamei as a result of
Tum'as ha'Tehom (TUM'AS HA'TEHOM - a Tum'ah of the depths)
(a) Tum'as ha'Tehom is Tum'ah that was unknown or hidden, such as a corpse
that was discovered lying beneath a road (TOSEFTA Zavin 2:5a). If a Nazir or
a person bringing a Korban Pesach became Tamei through Tum'as ha'Tehom
before offering his Korbenos Nazir or Pesach, he does not need to bring his
Korbanos again. This law is learned from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.
(b) According to RASHI (Pesachim 81b DH she'Ein Lo), even if the person
*definitely* became Tamei, his Korban is accepted, as long as he did not
discover his Tum'ah until *after* the Shechitah of his Korban. According to
the RAMBAM (Hilchos Korban Pesach 6:11), only if the person is *not certain*
that he is Tamei is his Korban offered, but they are offered even if the
corpse was discovered *before* the Shechitah of his Korban. (See Insights to
8a) [line 25] ZIVAH (ZAV)
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to
Pesachim 66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is
emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah.
Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or
spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg
white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from
barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine
whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to
an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too
much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to
start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the
seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At
nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he
emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three
consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order
to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
b) [line 25] ZIVAH (MISHKAV U'MOSHAV)
(a) A Zav (see previous entry), as well as a Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, can
cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they
touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is
treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the
*Tachton*, of a Zav). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware
objects) that is under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made
for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a
Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the
clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils)
that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a
Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the
*Elyon* of a Zav.
9) [last line] "V'NASA AHARON ES AVON HA'KODASHIM..." - "[And it (the
Tzitz -- forehead-plate) shall be upon Aharon's forehead,] and Aharon may
bear any guilt incurred in the holy offerings, [which the people of Yisrael
consecrate, for all of their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his
forehead, that they may be accepted before HaSh-m.]" (Shemos 28:38)
10a) [line 1] IM AVON PIGUL (CHUTZ LI'MEKOMO)
(a) A Korban that was slaughtered with the intention of eating it or
offering it outside of the *area* designated for it becomes disqualified,
and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from verse
that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with
the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra
19:7, see below, entry #11a). Although Chazal usually use the term "Pigul"
(putrid, rejected) to refer only to the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, our
Gemara is based on the verse that also uses this term in reference to Chutz
(b) If a person intentionally eats from a Korban that was offered with the
intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from
it unintentionally, he does not bring a Korban Chatas.
b) [line 1] HAREI KEVAR NE'EMAR "LO (YECHASHEV) [YERATZEH]" - the verse
already states, "it will not be accepted" (Vayikra 19:7)
11a) [line 2] IM AVON NOSAR (CHUTZ LI'ZEMANO)
(a) A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions
involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas
ha'Dam -- see Background to Zevachim 2:1:b) with the intention of eating it
or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes
disqualified. It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states,
"v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo
Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, *Pigul* Yiheyeh." - "If [the person
offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice]
will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will
not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(b) Our Gemara uses the word "Nosar" to referring to Chutz li'Zemano
(RASHI). (Chazal usually use the term "Pigul" to refer to this
prohibition -- see TOSFOS DH Im Avon for an alternate Girsa). If a person
eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being
forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul
is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given
Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he
must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to
Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)
b) [line 2] HAREI KEVAR NE'EMAR "LO (YERATZEH) [YECHASHEV]" - the verse
already states "it will not be counted [in his favor]" (Vayikra 7:18)
12) [line 4] ILEIMA (MI')TUM'AS SHERETZ - if you will say [that the Tzitz
makes a Korban acceptable when it was offered by a Kohen, or by its owner,
who was Tamei with] Tum'as Sheretz
13) [line 7] IY B'NAZIR - if it is referring to the Korban of a Nazir [when
it says that a person who became Tamei with Tum'as Mes may send his Korbanos
with someone else]
14) [line 8] L'OSEH PESACH - [rather, it is referring to] one who is
preparing his Korban Pesach (and we see from here that one who is Tamei with
Tum'as Mes *may* send his Korban Pesach with someone else, and thus this
Beraisa refutes the view of Rami bar Chama)
15) [line 9] L'OLAM B'SHERETZ - certainly it is referring to [one who became
Tamei with] Tum'as Sheretz [for whom the Tzitz is Meratzeh]
16a) [line 11] AVON HA'KODASHIM - [when the verse (Shemos 28:38; see above,
entry #9) says that the Tzitz is Meratzeh for "Avon ha'Kodashim," it is
referring to] the Tum'ah of the offerings themselves
b) [line 11] AVON MAKDISHIN - [when the verse (Shemos 28:38; see above,
entry #9) says that the Tzitz is Meratzeh for "Avon ha'Kodashim," it is
*not* referring to] the Tum'ah of those who sanctify the offerings (i.e. the
Kohen or the owner of the Korban)
17) [line 16] "[KI VO BACHAR...] LA'AMOD L'SHARES [B'SHEM HASH-M, HU U'VANAV
KOL HA'YAMIM.]" - "[For HaSh-m has chosen him...] to stand to minister [in
the Name of HaSh-m, him and his sons forever.]" (Devarim 18:5)
18) [line 18] "HA'OMDIM" - "[When the Levi will come from one of your
cities, from all of Yisrael, where he lives, and he comes with all the
desire of his soul to the place that HaSh-m will choose. Then he shall serve
in the name of HaSh-m, his G-d; like all of his brothers, the Leviyim,] who
stand [there before HaSh-m.]" (Devarim 18:6-7) - These verses refer to the
Kohanim as "Leviyim."
19) [line 21] MAH ZAR B'MISAH - just as a non-Kohen is punished with Misah
b'Yedei Shamayim (death at the hands of HaSh-m -- Bamidbar 18:7, and
20) [line 21] ALAMAH - why?
21) [line 23] B'AZHARAH - he transgresses a Lav (and is not punished with
Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, but rather with Malkus)