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Zevachim 22

ZEVACHIM 21-23 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 2] B'KODE'ACH B'SOCHO - [the Beraisa which says that a vessel containing even less than a Revi'is may be used by a Kohen for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim refers to a case] (a) where it (the small vessel) is imbedded into it (the Kiyor, such that the Kohen is washing from the water that enters the small vessel from the Kiyor to which it is attached) (RASHI); (b) where he submerges it (the small vessel) into it (the Kiyor, and he then removes the small vessel and uses it for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim) (TOSFOS)

2) [line 3] "[B'VO'AM EL OHEL MO'ED UV'KARVASAM EL HA'MIZBE'ACH] YIRCHATZU..." - "[When they come to the Ohel Mo'ed and when they approach the Mizbe'ach,] they will wash..." (Shemos 40:32) - The word "Yirchatzu" is considered to be superfluous, because the previous verse mentions washing already. It must be that this word is intended to teach that other vessels besides the Kiyor may be used.

3) [line 4] IY HACHI KELI CHOL NAMI - if so (if the verse of "Yirchatzu" teaches that other vessels, besides the Kiyor, may be used for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim), then an unsanctified vessel also [should be permitted to be used]!

4) [line 4] KELI CHOL LO MATZIS AMART - you cannot say [that the verse is including] unsanctified vessels

5) [line] MI'KANO - [as we can prove] from the law regarding its Kan. The Kan is the copper base upon which the Kiyor sits, as described in Shemos 30:18.

6) [line 6] EINO MEKADESH - it (i.e. water from the Kan) cannot be used for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim of the Kohanim

7) [line 12] SHE'EIN ASUY L'SOCHO - that is not made to be a receptacle (since it is not made to hold water, the Kohen cannot use it for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim; in contrast, an ordinary vessel which is made to hold water perhaps could be used, even though it is not sanctified)

8) [line 17] HA'MASHLIM L'MEI MIKVAH - the type of liquid that may be used to complete the [40 Se'ah minimum of the] waters of a Mikvah

9) [line 19] TIT HA'NIDOK / HA'NAROK - (a) very thin mud [which can be poured from one utensil into another] (RASHI here); (b) very loose mud which can be poured [from one utensil into another] (Sukah 19b and RASHI there)

10) [line 19] SHOCHEH - bends over [and drinks from it]
11) [line 22] YAVCHUSHIN ADUMIN - red water worms, believed to generate from the water itself; "Yavchushin" usually refers to Drosphilla, a small fly whose larvae feed on fruit and decaying plants

12) [line 22] AFILU B'EINAIHU NAMI - [one may immerse in them] even in their actual form (that is, if Reish Lakish was referring to Yavchushin, then he would not have said that they may be used to "complete" the 40 Se'ah minimum requirement of the waters of a Mikvah, because it is permitted to immerse in a Mikvah which is entirely comprised of Yavchushin)

13) [line 24] TECHILAS BERIYASO MIN HA'MAYIM - the beginning of its formation is from the water (the Yavchushin are formed from the water, and therefore they may be used to fill a Mikvah)

14) [line 25] EINO SHEL DAG - the fluid that drained from the eye of a large fish

15) [line 26] NASAN SE'AH V'NATAL SE'AH - if one put one Se'ah of liquid which, by itself, is ineligible to be used for a Mikvah, into a valid Mikvah containing 40 Se'ah of water, and then removed one Se'ah of the Mikvah's contents, the Mikvah remains valid. This is because the ineligible liquid became Batel when it entered the valid Mikvah.

16) [line 27] MECHUVANOS - exactly
17) [line 30] IM KADACH BO REVI'IS - if he dug a small hole, the size of a Revi'is, next to the Mikvah (and the water from the Mikvah flowed into it, but the water in the hole and the water in the Mikvah are no longer touching; RASHI)

18a) [line 31] MACHATIN - needles
b) [line 31] TZINORIYOS - small utensils that resemble tiny forks that are used to spin gold

19) [line 33] MAYIM CHAYIM - flowing spring water

20) [line 34] "VEHA'KEREV VEHA'KERA'AYIM YIRCHATZ] BA'MAYIM" - "[And the innards and the forelegs he shall rinse] in water" (Vayikra 1:13; see also Vayikra 1:9)

21) [line 34] MAZUG - diluted wine
22) [last line] (REBBI) [DEVEI] SHMUEL - [it was taught by] the Yeshiva of Shmuel
23) [last line] SHEM LEVAI - a qualifying title added to its name; adjective


24) [line 4] MEI MA'AYAN - the water of a spring
25) [line 4] SHE'AR MEIMOS - water from other sources
26) [line 12] EREL LEV - a person with an "uncircumcised heart" (an unscrupulous person), referred to in Yechezkel 44:9

27) [line 13] SHE'NISNAKRU MA'ASAV L'AVIV SHEBA'SHAMAYIM - his deeds have made him become estranged (like a Nochri) to his Father in the heavens

28) [line 20] ZIKNEI DAROM - the elders of the south (regarding the identity of the Ziknei Darom, see PIRYO B'ITO to Zevachim, vol. 1, footnotes, page 182-183)

29a) [line 20] TEMEI SHERETZ - a Kohen who is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz (see Background to Zevachim 3:15)
b) [line 21] TEMEI MES - a Kohen who is Tamei with Tum'as Mes (see below, entry #32)

30) [line 21] MI'TOCH SHE'MERATZEH B'TZIBUR, MERATZEH NAMI B'YACHID - since, when he offers a communal offering, he finds favor [and the Korban he offers is accepted even though he is Tamei], he also finds favor when he offers an individual's Korban (RITZUY TZITZ)
(a) Tum'ah renders Korbanos unfit for being offered. Therefore, if the *blood* of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is cast on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam with this blood. Similarly, Rebbi Yehoshua rules that if all of the *meat and Chelev* of a Korban becomes Tamei before Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to do Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). In addition, if the *Eimurim* (the parts of a Korban that are to be offered on the Mizbe'ach) become Teme'im even after Zerikas ha'Dam, it becomes prohibited to offer them afterwards.
(b) However, all of these laws apply only l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, if the Kohen did Zerikas ha'Dam b'Tum'ah and the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz at the time, the Tzitz validates the Kohen's Avodah. The Korban may be eaten and the owner has fulfilled his obligation. This Halachah is learned from the verse, "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). (If, however, the meat became Tamei, the Tzitz does not render it fit to be *eaten*.)
(c) Korbenos Tzibur (public sacrifices) do not require the Tzitz to render them acceptable. If they become Teme'im through one of the above-mentioned Tum'os, they may be offered l'Chatchilah. Also, if all of the Kohanim are Teme'im, they may offer Korbanos l'Chatchilah. These Korbanos, however, even though they were offered b'Tum'ah, may not be eaten (with the exception of the Korban Pesach, which is a Korban Tzibur that may be offered b'Tum'ah and also eaten b'Tum'ah).
(d) The Tzitz was the thin gold plate on which was written "Kodesh la'Sh-m," worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38; see Charts to Shabbos 63b).

31) [line 22] TEMEI SHERETZ NAMI LEISI B'KAL VA'CHOMER - a Kohen who is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz should also be allowed to offer a Korban, based on a Kal v'Chomer [from Tamei Mes]

32) [line 23] SHE'TA'UN HAZA'AH SHELISHI U'SHEVI'I - who requires Haza'ah on the third and seventh days (TUM'AS MES)
If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas, see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:19) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

We do not perform the Shechitah and Zerikas ha'Dam of the Korban Pesach on behalf of someone who is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz. Even though he is able to immerse in a Mikvah and become Tahor in the evening when the Pesach is eaten, the verse (Bamidbar 9:10) defers him to Pesach Sheni.

34) [line 32] TAKA LEHU REISH LAKISH LI'DEROMA'EI - Reish Lakish yelled loudly at the elders of the south (i.e. he was strongly opposed to their opinion)

35) [line 36] [SHE']MESHALCHIN KORBENOSEIHEN - they may send their Korbanos with a Shali'ach

36) [line 41] "[DABER EL BENEI YISRAEL LEIMOR,] 'ISH ISH KI YIHEYEH TAMEI [LA'NEFESH O V'DERECH RECHOKAH LACHEM O L'DOROSEICHEM] V'ASAH FESACH LA'SH-M. BA'CHODESH HA'SHENI... '" - "[Speak to the children of Israel saying,] 'If any man shall be Tamei [because of a dead body or be on a distant road, whether you or your [future] generations,] he shall make the Pesach [Sheni] Offering to HaSh-m. In the second month (Iyar), [on the fourteenth day in the afternoon they shall do it; with Matzos and bitter herbs they shall eat it.']" (Bamidbar 9:10-11) - The Gemara learns from this verse that a person who is Tamei on Pesach should not send his Korban Pesach with a Shali'ach, but rather he should bring it himself on Pesach Sheni when he is Tahor.

37) [last line] "ISH LEFI OCHLO"
A lamb or goat that is slaughtered as a Korban Pesach may only be eaten by individuals who are designated beforehand to eat from it. This is learned from the verse, "v'Im Yim'at ha'Bayis mi'Heyos mi'Seh v'Lakach Hu u'Shecheno ha'Karov El Beiso b'Michsas Nefashos; Ish Lefi Ochlo Tachosu Al ha'Seh." - "If the household is too small for a lamb, then he and a close neighbor can obtain a lamb together, as long as it is for specifically designated individuals. Individuals shall be designated for a lamb according to how much each one will eat" (Shemos 12:4). The Gemara learns from this verse that a person who is Tamei on Pesach and could not participate in eating the Korban Pesach may *not* send a Korban Pesach, even b'Di'eved, since he cannot be among those who will eat it.

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