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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 86

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.


1) According to Rebbi Elazar, "ve'Nakeh" (Hashem forgives) refers to someone who *has* done Teshuvah, and "Lo Yenakeh" to someone who has *not*.


(a) When Rebbi Masya ben Charash asked him in Rome whether he had heard the four categories of atonement that Rebbi Yishmael used to Darshen, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah replied that there were only *three* - because he does not consider Teshuvah an atonement. Teshuvah is however, a prerequisite for all three.

(b) We learn from ...

1. ... "Shuvu Banim Shovavim" that there are certain sins that do not require any atonement, but for which Teshuvah alone wipes one's slate clean (which Chazal referred to Mitzvos Asei).
2. ... "Ki va'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem mi'Kol Chatoseichem" - that other sins require Yom Kipur (Lo Sa'aseh).
3. ... "u'Fakadti be'Shevet Pish'am u'vi'Nega'im Avonam" - that yet other sins, require suffering as well.
(c) Chilul Hashem requires all three, before death completes the atonement.
(a) Chilul Hashem is defined as sinning and causing others to sin.


1. ... Rav describe Chilul Hashem (vis-a-vis himself) - as purchasing meat from a butcher and not paying immediately. This will not apply where the shop-keeper tends to ask for the money (e.g. sends accounts).
2. ... Rebbi Yochanan describes it - as walking four Amos without Torah and without Tefilin.
(c) When Abaye purchased something from two partners - he would pay each one (in order to avoid controversy) - and later bring them together and settle with them.
(a) Yitzchak de'Bei Rebbi Yanai described Chilul Hashem as someone who causes his friends embarrassment due to the rumors that circulate concerning him.

(b) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explains it with reference to someone about whom one needs to say 'May Hashem forgive him for what he did'. Abaye, based on the Pasuk in the Shema "ve'Ahavta es Hashem Elokecha"- explains Chilul Hashem to refer to someone who studied Torah *Chumash, Mishnah and Gemara), but who does not deal honestly with people and does not speak gently with them, causing them to despise him and his father who taught him Torah.

(c) About such a person the Pasuk writes in Yechezkel "be'Emor Lahem Am Hashem Eileh, u'me'Artzo Yatza'u" - a Chilul Hashem, because everyone se es them going into Galus, and, believing that, on account of all the Torah that they learnt, they must be Tzadikim, they will think that Hashem is unable to save them from punishment.

(d) The Pasuk "va'Yomer Li Avdi Ata, Yisrael Asher Be'cha Espa'er" - refers to someone who studies Torah and then deals honestly with people and speaks gently with them, causing them to praise him and his father, and to praise all those who study such a wonderful Torah. By doing this one fulfills the Pasuk "ve'Ahavta es Hashem Elokecha", by causing Hashem to become beloved by others.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a "Erpa Meshuvasam, Ohavem Nedavah" - how great Teshuvah is, inasmuch as it causes healing in the world.

(b) When Yisrael do Teshuvah from love, then Hashem accepts thier Teshuvah retroactively, reckoning their original sins as if they were no more than childish acts (which one tends to overlook); but when their Teshuvah is the result of fear, then it is only effective from then on, leaving the original sin fully intact.

(c) The Teshuvah will be accompanied by a pleasant aura when it is the result of either love or fear, and it will come about through force and as a result of prior battles - when it is not initiated by Yisrael but by Hashem.

(d) we learn from "Shuvu Yisrael ad Hashem Elokecha" - the greatness of Teshuvah, inasmuch as it reaches Hashem's Throne.




(a) When Rebbi Yochanan said that Teshuvah is so great that it over-rides a Lo Sa'aseh in the Torah - he was referring to the La'av of taking back one's divorced wife after she has married another man - yet Hashem took us back even we had left him, to go and cleave to other gods.


1. ... Rebbi Yochanan learned from the Pasuk "u'Va le'Tzi'on Go'el u'le'Shavei Fesha be'Ya'akov" - the greatness of Teshuvah, inasmuch as it bringsthe redemption closer.
2. ... Rebbi Yonasan learned from the Pasuk "u've'Shuv Rasha me'Rish'aso Yichyeh" - that Teshuvah prolongs the erstwhile Rasha's life.
(c) Sins performed on purpose become like inadvertent sins, explains Resh Lakish - when one's Teshuvah on them is the result of fear; but they are treated like merits - when the Teshuvah is inspired by love.

(d) The Gemara comments on the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ke'chu Imachem Devarim, ve'Shuvu el Hashem" - that someone who sins in secret (to avoid the Chilul Hashem) needs only words to appease Hashem.
2. ... "ve'Kach Tov" - that Hashem is even grateful to him (and will repay him) for his Teshuvah.
3. ... "u'Neshalmah Farim Sefaseinu" - that his verbal Teshuvah is even reckoned as if he had brought bulls (as a Korban);
4. ... "Erpa Meshuvasam, Ohaveim *Nedavah*" - and not just bulls that one is *obligated* to bring, but bulls that one volunteered to bring without having sinned.
(a) Rebbi Meir learns from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a "Erpa Meshuvasam, Ki Shav Api Mimenu" - that even though only one person does Teshuvah, Hashem pardons the entire world.

(b) Rav Yehudah describes a genuine Ba'al Teshuvah as someone who, after sinning, avoids transgressing the same sin on another two occasions, adding 'with the same woman, during the same period of his life - i.e. before he becomes old) and in the same location (where the urge to repeat the sin is stronger).

(c) A person should hide sins (that he performed in private), and publicize sins (that he performed in public). In the second answer to theglaring contradiction between two Pesukim, the Gemara differentiates between sins between man and man (which *should* be publicised - so that people will intercede on his behalf with the person whom he wronged), and sins between man and Hashem (which should *not*).

(d) Yisrael can expect Hashem to forgive the same sin - performed by ...

  1. ... K'lal Yisrael - three times, but not four.
  2. ... an individual - three times, but not four.
(a) According to the Tana Kama - one is not permitted to confess on Yom Kipur, a sin that one transgressed last year (unless that is, one repeated the transgression again this year).

(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov learns from the Pasuk "ve'Chatasi Negdi Samid" - that it is always good to confess one's sins before Hashem, no matter how long ago one transgressed.

(c) The Tana Kama derives his opinion from the Pasuk in Mishlei "ke'Kelev Shav el Ki'o". Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov learns from there Rav Huna's slogan - that once a person sins twice, it begins to appears to him as if the sin was permitted.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava learns from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "Ana Chata ha'Am ha'Zeh, *Asu Lahem Elohei Zahav*" - that someone who confesses to having sinned, must specify his sin.

(b) Rebbi Akiva learns from "Ashrei ... K'suy Chata'ah" that it is better to cover one's sin and not to specify it - according to him, "Asu Lahem Elohei Zahav" comes to teach us that sin of the Eigel was not entirely Yisrael's fault. Kevayachol, Hashem was partly to blame for providing them with so much money when they left Egypt, as Rebbi Yanai explains.

(c) Yisrael's two faithful leaders were Moshe Rabeinu and David ha'Melech. Both of them 'sinned', yet, whereas the latter asked Hashem to *hide* his sin, the former asked Hashem to *publicize* his.

(d) The reason that Moshe chose to act differently than David in this regard was - so that everybody should know the difference between the sin that prevented *him* from entering Eretz Yisrael and the sin of the Meraglim, which prevented *Yisrael* from entering.

(a) It is a Mitzvah to publicize the identity of Chanafim (pretenders) - 1. because people, thinking that they are Tzadikim, will learn from their evil deeds, and 2. because when they receive their punishment, people, who believe them to be Tzadikim, will think that it does pay to be a Tzadik (both of these reasons fall under the category of Chilul Hashem).

(b) Even Hashem publicizes Chanafim - as Yechezkel specifically writes "u've'Shuv Tzadik mi'Tzidko, ve'Asah Avel, ve'Nasati Michshol Lefanav" (that when a Tzadik changes his behavior, Hashem places a stumbling-block in his path).

(a) The Gemara says ...
1. ... that the Teshuvah of total Resha'im - delays their punishment even if it has already been sealed (see Tosfos Yeshanim).
2. ... that the tranquil life of Resha'im - is an obstacle (that impedes the world's progress), because when the Resha'im have it good, they have plenty of time to devise their evil plans.
3. ... that authority buries its incumbents - meaning that people who rule die before their time, just like Yosef, who died before his brothers (even though he was the second youngest) because he was a king.
(b) One comes into this world naked, and that is how one leaves it - with nothing. Halevai (if only) one were to leave it as free of sin as one entered it!

(c) Before going out to judge, Rav and Rava used to say 'Of one's own free- will one goes to one's death (referring to the heavy responsibility of judging), even though one gains nothing in the process'.

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