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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 82

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.



(a) 'Pirkan' ...
  1. ... with regard to a girl - means when she reaches the age of twelve.
  2. ... with regard to a boy - the age of thirteen.
  3. ... 'Lifnei Shanah' used by the Tana of our Mishnah - means one year prior to that.
(b) The problem inherent in our Mishnah - is why the Tana says 'Lifnei Shanah, ve'Lifnei Shenasayim'. If one educates children *two* years before they come of age, then why mention *one*?

(c) Rav Chisda explains that *one* year refers to a *weak* child, *two*, to a *strong* one.

(a) According to Rav Huna, a girl of eight or nine must fast for a few hours - a girl of ten or eleven, all day (mi'de'Rabbanan).

(b) When Rav Huna speaks of 'eight or nine', and of 'ten or eleven' - he means a strong girl and a weak one (just like Rav Chisda explained our Mishnah).

(c) Once a girl turns twelve, she is obligated to fast mi'd'Oraysa, irrespective of whether she is strong or weak (unless of course, her life is in danger).

(d) Rav Nachman, who divides the ages into two groups of nine and ten, and eleven and twelve, concurs entirely with Rav Huna - only *he* is speaking about a boy, and *Rav Huna*, about a girl.

(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan, there is no such thing as completing the fast mi'de'Rabbanan. A girl of twelve is obligated to fast mi'd'Oraysa, and one of ten or eleven, mi'de'Rabbanan.

(b) Rav Huna and Rav Nachman interpret 'Mechanchin Osan *Lifnei Shanah ve'Lifnei Shenasayim'* ... to mean one or two years before the one or two years that they are obligated mi'de'Rabbanan to complete the fast.

(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan, what does our Mishnah mean when it writes 'Mechanchin Osan Lifnei Shanah ... ' - seeing as, in his opinion, there is no obligation to complete the fast mi'de'Rabbanan?

(d) Rebbi Yochanan will amend the Mishnah to read 'Mechanchin Osan Shanah ... ' (erasing the word 'Lifnei'), implying that, one year before they come of age if they are weak, and two years, if they are strong.

(a) The Beraisa quoted by Rabah bar Shmuel says 'Mechanchin Osan Shanah O Shetayim Samuch le'Pirkan' implying that they must fast one or two years before they come of age - and not three or four, like Rav Huna and Rav Nachman hold? So how will they reconcile the Beraisa with their own opinions?

(b) They answer that Mechanchin here means the obligation to fast all day. They reconcile this Beraisa with another Beraisa, which specifically describes 'Mechanchin' as eating one hour later than usual - by establishing that there are *two* kinds of Chinuch (in this regard).

(a) When a pregnant woman has a strong urge to partake from a food that is cooking on the stove - it means that the baby has a desire for it.

(b) Should this occur, even on Yom Kipur, one feeds her until she no longer has the urge to eat - otherwise, both her life and that of the baby will be in danger.

(c) The Tana of our Mishnah permits a sick person to eat - either through the advice of experts or through the sick person himself (until he says 'enough').

(a) If during the year, a pregnant woman has a desire for meat of Hekdesh or non-Kasher food, the Beraisa gives three stages of stilling her desire: one first sticks a spindle into the gravy and places it on her mouth; then, assuming that she is not satisfied with that, one feeds her some of the gravy; if she is still not satisfied, then one feeds her the actual food.

(b) According to Rebbi Eliezer in the Beraisa - the only three prohibitions that over-ride human life, are idolatry, adultery and murder.

(c) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the Pasuk in va'Eschanan ...

1. ... "be'Chol Nafshecha" - that someone whose life is worth more to him than his money, is nevertheless obligated to give up his life rather than transgress any of the above three.
2. ... " u've'Chol Me'odecha" - that if his money is more precious to him than his body, then he must rather lose all his money.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer learns ... 1. ... that murder as well as adultery, over-rides human life - from the Hekesh of a betrothed girl (who is being chased by a man who wants to rape her) to murder. The comparison, as it stands, teaches us nothing; it must therefore come firstly, to compare, not rape to murder, but murder to rape - to teach us that just as one is permitted to save a betrothed girl who is being raped (to save her Neshamah), even by killing the rapist, so too, may one kill someone who is threatening to kill a fellow-Jew (to save his body).

(b) And secondly, that just as one must rather give up one's life than kill someone else, so too, must one rather give up one's life than commit adultery.




(a) Rava told the unfortunate man, whom the Romans warned that either he kills the mayor of his town or they would kill him - that he must rather allow himself to be killed than kill a fellow Jew.

(b) The man initially thought that his own life should come first - because the Torah writes "va'Chai Bahem" - 've'Lo she'Yamus Bahem'.

(c) He erred inasmuch as this Sevara applies only to other Mitzvos, where the Mitzvah will be performed and a Jewish life saved - but not when somebody else's life is at stake. There, where the Mitzvah will not be performed and a life will be lost in any case, who's to say that his life is more valuable than the other Jew's? Consequently, he must desist from killing another Jew, rather allowing himself to be killed.

(a) When a certain woman had the problem of her unborn baby wanting to eat on Yom Kipur - Rebbi instructed her to whisper in his ear that today was Yom Kipur.

(b) Her longing to eat ceased.

(c) The baby subsequently turned out to be Rebbi Yochanan.

(d) Rebbi attributed the Pasuk "be'Terem Etzarcha ba'Beten Yeda'ticha ... ".

(a) Shabsa'i Otzar Peiri turned out to be the baby of the other woman, to whom Rebbi issued the same advice. This baby, though, persisted.

(b) He was called by that name - because he used to stockpile the produce, and it is forbidden to stockpile anything that is basic livelihood in Eretz Yisrael.

(c) The reason for this is - because it forces the prices up.

(d) Rebbi Chanina quoted the Pasuk from Tehilim "Zoru Resha'im me'Rechem" concerning him - because he explains the Pasuk to mean that the Resha'im became estranged (from their Father in Heaven) already from birth.

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