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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 78

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.



(a) Rav Yosef attempts to prove from the Mishnah in Midos (where Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov says that, at the point where the river that will flow from the Beis Hamikdash becomes neck-deep, Zavin ... and Nidos will Tovel in it) - that a Nidah must stand at least up to her neck in water when she Tovels.

(b) The Halachah however, is not like him (i.e. as long as the water covers her completely, even if she has to bend down, the Mikvah is Kasher).

(a) It might be forbidden to cross a river on Shabbos wearing shoes - for fear that they will fall off and one will come to carry them across.

(b) The Halachah is that it is permitted.

(c) Rav Ashi ruled that Lechatchilah, one should not cross a river wearing sandals (of those days), since they could not be tied as firmly as shoes (Note: The Shulchan Aruch ignores the word 'Lechatchilah').

(d) Ravina did not appear at the Derashah of the Resh Galusa on Yom Kipur - because his foot hurt him and he was unable to wear shoes. He did not want to wear sandals - because he had to cross a stretch of water on the way, and Rav Ashi forbids crossing water in sandals.

(a) Sitting in mud (to cool down) is forbidden on Yom Kipur - provided it is sufficiently wet for someone who dips his finger into it to make something else wet.

(b) One may cool oneself through contact with ...

  1. ... cold fruit or a cold child.
  2. ... cool oneself through contact with a silver cup of water - provided it is not full (according to Rav Papa).
(c) Rav Papa concedes that cooling oneself through contact with an *earthenware* cup of water which is only half-full is forbidden - because earthenware exudes the liquid that it contains.

(d) Rav Ashi forbid even cooling oneself with a silver cup of water that is *not* full - because silver tends to slide, and it might fall over and spill.

(a) Ze'iri bar Chama was a famous inn-keeper in Caesaria. He told Rav Yosef, the son of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi that, on Erev Yom Kipur - his father used to wash his hands, wipe them on a cloth and fold it; then, next morning, he would unfold it and wipe his eyes with it.

(b) And, on Erev Tish'ah be'Av, he would soak a cloth in water and let it dry overnight. Next morning (Tish'ah-be'Av), he would wipe his face hands and feet with it.

(c) The Gemara objected to those who switched the text, to be more lenient on Yom Kipur than on Tish'ah be'Av (because the Rabbanan's decrees need more reinforcement than the Torah's prohibitions) - on the grounds of Sechitah (the Isur of squeezing, which applies on Yom Kipur, but not on Tish'ah be'Av), which is inevitable in the latter case, but not in the former.

(a) They asked Rebbi Elazar whether a Talmid-Chacham who sat on the Sanhedrin needed to request permission from the Nasi to examine blemished Bechoros and permit them - a formality which is normally a matter of showing deference to the Nasi.

(b) The She'eilah here - is whether a Talmid-Chacham who sat on the Sanhedrin was subject to this formality, or whether Kavod ha'Torah took precedence.

(c) Rebbi Tzadok ben Chalukah testified that Rebbi Yossi ben Zimra, who was a Talmid-Chacham who sat on the Sanhedrin - requested permission from the Nasi to examine Bechoros.

(d) According to another version of the story, they asked Rebbi Elazar whether the Halachah was like Rebbi Meir( who said that someone who is himself suspect, cannot judge someone else or testify for or against him, in the same area if Halachah where he is suspect) - in which case, Rebbi Yossi ben Zimra would *not* have been eligible to examine the Bechor of another Kohen; or whether it is like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (who rules that such a person is only suspect with regard to himself, but not with regard to someone else), in which case, he *would*.




(a) They also asked Rebbi Elazar whether sandals made of Sha'am (a sort of rush) could be worn on Yom Kipur. Rebbi Yitzchak bar Nachmeni testified that he saw Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi doing so.

(b) And Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi told him that it will be equally permissible to do so on a Ta'anis Tzibur (when there is no rain) - even though Rabbinical decrees are someone more stringent than Torah-based laws.

(c) One is also permitted to wear shoes made of grass on Yom Kipur.

(a) Rebbi Meir holds that a lame man is permitted to walk out with his wooden leg on Shabbos - because he considers it to be a shoe.

(b) Rebbi Yossi forbids it - because, seeing as it is not worn by most people, it is not considered a shoe.

(c) Both Tana'im agree that the lame man is not permitted to wear his wooden leg on Yom Kipur - from which we see that the fact that the wooden leg is not called a shoe (according to Rebbi Yossi), does not automatically permit it to be worn on Yom Kipur. Then why did they permit a rush-shoe (and other types of shoes not made of leather).

(d) Abaye therefore establishes the Mishnah in Shabbos by a wooden leg with a cavity which holds soft pads for the lame man's stump, and Rebbi Yossi forbids wearing it on Yom Kipur because it is extremely comfortable.

(a) Rava asks on Abaye how rags can possibly turn the wooden leg into a shoe. He also asks that, according to Abaye, why did Chazal not decree all pleasures on Yom Kipur? And we know that they didn't - because Rabah bar Rav Huna used to wrap cloths round his feet on Yom Kipur and go out.

(b) In any event, Rava concludes, the Reisha of the Mishnah cannot be speaking when there was a cavity for rags - because the Seifa introduces that concept only in the Seifa, implying that the Reisha does not speak in such a case.

(c) In Rava’s opinion, the reason that Rebbi Yossi forbids wearing the wooden leg is because it is considered a shoe; and the reason that he forbids a lame man to go out with it on Shabbos is (not due to the fact that it is not a shoe, as we initially thought, but) - because Chazal decreed that it may fall off and he will come to carry it.

(a) The only one of the five Inuyim that is applicable to children is that of not wearing shoes. We initially contend that this is because people will suspect that it is his mother or his father who put on his shoes - and the Torah forbids grown-ups to 'feed' children whatever is forbidden to *them* (because of the Pasuk "Lo Sochlum" - "Don't *eat* them"!, which Chazal interpret as "Lo Sa'achilum" - "Don't *feed* them"!).

(b) People will not suspect the parents of bathing him and anointing him *today* - because it is just as likely that they did it *yesterday*.

(c) They will not however, attribute the child wearing shoes, to his mother or father having put them on *yesterday* - because it is highly uncomfortable ('akin to dying' - says the Gemara) to sleep in one's shoes.

(a) Chazal differentiated by small children, between the Inuy of not wearing shoes - which are *not* important for the child's development, and those of not bathing or anointing - which *are*.

(b) A small child needs ...

1. ... in its initial stages of growth - hot water (for bathing) and oil (for anointing).
2. ... when it grows a little older - eggs with Kutach (a condiment comprising bread, milk and salt).
(c) When the Amora'im's children reached the age when they could play with toys - their fathers would buy them cheap cracked earthenware vessels, so that they could break them (because children need to be able to break things - to give vent to their frustrations).
(a) According to the Tana Kama, neither a king nor a bride are permitted to wash on Yom Kipur, nor is a woman who has just given birth permitted to wear shoes. Rebbi Chananya ben Teradyon quoting Rebbi Eliezer permits all three.


1. A king may wash his face on Yom Kipur - because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Melech be'Yofyo Techezenah Einecha" (a king must always look immaculate).
2. A bride may wash hers - in order that she should not become despicable in her husband's eyes.
3. A woman who has just given birth may wear shoes - to prevent her feet from becoming cold.
12) Shmuel permits a healthy person to wear shoes on Yom Kipur - when there is a danger of scorpions.

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