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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 67

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.



(a) Some of the important residents would accompany the Meshale'ach to the first hut, as he took the goat out of Yerushalayim. All in all, there were *ten* huts. Their purpose was to serve as a reassurance to the Meshale'ach that food was available should he want it - because Chazal have said 'Eino Domeh Mi she'Yesh Lo Pas be'Salo le'Mi she'Ein Lo Pas be'Salo' (a person fasts easier in the knowledge that food is available should he need it).

(b) There are seven and a half Ris in a Mil.

(c) The distance from Yerushalayim until the Tzuk (*the steep rock*) -was twelve Mil.

(d) The distance between Yerushalayim and the first hut, and between each hut and the next - was one Mil.

(a) The people would say to the Kohen Gadol as he arrived at each hut - 'Here is food and here is water'!

(b) When he walked from the last hut to the Tzuk the people who were stationed at the last hut would only accompany him half-way - because the distance was twice that of Techum Shabbos.

(c) Before pushing the goat over the Tzuk - the Meshale'ach would divide the red piece of wool into two, and tie one half on to the rock, and the other half, between the goat's horns.

(a) The goat was standing backwards as the Kohen Gadol pushed it off the Tzuk (presumably, so that it would not be able to save itself as it was pushed off - seeing as goats are used to steep inclines).

(b) By the time the goat was half-way down the mountain, it was already torn to pieces.

(c) The Meshale'ach then walked back to the last hut, where he remained until nightfall.

(d) The Chachamim permitted the Meshale'ach to walk the *two* Mil back to the last hut, when normally, they only allowed a person who came from outside the Techum *one* Mil, him they allowed *two* - because a. he was weak from fasting, and he might suffer from exposure; and b. because he may be afraid to remain alone in the desert.

4) According to the Tana Kama, the goat is Metamei the Meshale'ach's clothes from the moment he leaves the walls of Yerushalayim. Rebbi Shimon says - only from the time that it is pushed from the rock.


(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi, from Yerushalayim to the Tzuk was *ten* Milin. Rebbi Yehudah holds that there were *nine* huts, Rebbi Yossi, *five*.

(b) The Chachamim permit him to walk more than one Mil from hut to hut - on the basis of an Eruv.

(c) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi chided his father. If it was by means of an Eruv, they did not require even *five* huts, they could have managed on *two* - by placing the first hut at a distance of *four* Mil from Yerushalayim, and the second at *eight*. By the people in Yerushalayim placing an Eruv one Mil from Yerushalayim, and those in the first and second huts placing an Eruv in both directions, the Meshale'ach would have people accompanying him all the way.

(d) The author of the Beraisa which says that the people in the last hut did not accompany him all the way to the Tzuk, but watched him from one Mil away - is Rebbi Meir, who is also the author of our Mishnah, and who holds that there were ten huts and that the distance was ten Mil.

(a) The Tana describes how they would offer the Meshale'ach bread and water at each hut. In fact, he never needed to take up the offer.

(b) The Meshale'ach tied half the red strand of wool on the rock, and half between the goat's horns - not just ...

1. ... on the rock - because we are afraid that sometimes, the wool would turn white before he had performed the Mitzvah of pushing the goat off the rock, and, out of sheer joy, the Meshale'ach would forget to proceed with it. Obligating him to tie the second half of the wool on to
the goat's head would remind him not to forget to complete the Mitzvah.
2. ... between the goat's horns - because it might happen that, as he pushed the goat off the rock, the goat would bend its head under its body (as it toppled off the cliff backwards), and he would not be able to see whether the wool had turned white or not.
(a) Initially, they used to tie the red piece of wool at the *entrance* to the Ulam.

(b) They changed the location to the *inside* of the Ulam - when it sometimes happened that the wool failed to turn white and the people were ashamed.

(c) They changed the location of the wool from the Beis Hamikdash to the rock and the goats horns - when the people began trying to peep behind the entrance of the Ulam in order to see whether it had turned white or not.

(d) Rebbi Elazar Hakapor says that, originally, they used to place the piece of red wool at the entrance to the Ulam, and by the time the goat reached the desert, it had already turned white (presumably, this refers to the times before Shimon ha'Tzadik's death).




(a) Rav and Shmuel argue over whether one was permitted to derive benefit from the remains of the goat or not - one learns from the word "Bamidbar", that the goat became Hefker (public property) like a desert; the other learns from "el Eretz *Gezeirah*" (which has a connotation of prohibition) that it was forbidden.

(b) The opinion which forbade the goat learns from "Bamidbar" in conjunction with the other two times that the Torah writes "ha'Midbarah" - that the Sa'ir la'Az'azel was to function (during the time that the Aron was) in Nov and Giv'on and (when the Mishkan was) in Shiloh.

(c) The opinion which permits the goat, learns from "Gezeirah" ...

1. ... that the mountain must be a steep one, and that the goat must be able to break up into limbs as it falls down the steep slope (i.e. it should not be a sheer fall).
2. ... that the Sa'ir la'Azaz'el is a Divine decree, and that (like the Parah Adumah) we have no permission to query it.
(d) Rava agrees with the opinion that permits the remains of the goat - because otherwise, anyone coming across them, without knowing what they were, would use them and transgress an Isur d'Oraysa - and it is not logical that the Torah would instruct the Kohen Gadol to send an animal away to cause innocent people to sin.
(a) (Splitting the word "Az'azel" into two - 'Azaz' and 'Eil') the Gemara proves from the word "ve'Es *Eilei* ha'Aretz Lakach" - which means strong, that "Az'azel", too means very strong ('she'Yehei Az ' - Azaz 've'Kasheh' - Eil).

(b) Uza and Aza'el were the two angels whom Hashem tested by sending them down in the guise of humans, after they queried the creation of man (who was a potential sinner). They were the ones who, due to their lust for women and immoral behavior, caused the destruction of the world at the time of the flood. The Sa'ir la'Az'azel too, atones for the sin of adultery.

(a) When the Torah writes ...
1. ... "es Mishpatai" - it is referring to laws which are obvious, and do not need to be written (such as the three cardinal sins, theft and cursing Hashem).
2. ... "es *Chukosai* Tishmeru" - to Mitzvos that we would not have deemed necessary if the Torah had not commanded them (such as the prohibition of eating non-Kasher food, of wearing Sha'atnez, Chalitzah of a Yevamah, the purification of a Metzora and the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach). Consequently, the Satan casts doubts upon the Torah's integrity.
(b) The Torah concludes "Ani Hashem" - with reference to the Chukim, to say that Hashem decreed them, and that we have no permission to query their veracity.
(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah, we learn from "ve'ha'Meshale'ach" - that the people who were accompanying him from the time that the Meshale'ach left Yerushalayim with the goat (but not before) and onwards became Tamei, and so did the clothes that they were wearing.

(b) According to Rebbi Shimon, "ha'Meshale'ach" refers to from the moment he pushes the goat off the cliff and onwards (in which case, only the Meshale'ach and his clothes will have become Tamei). Rebbi Yossi learns from "Az'azel ... ve'Chibes" - that the person and the clothes become Tamei from the time the Meshale'ach reaches the steep rock.

(a) The Kohen Gadol then went to tend to the Par and the Sa'ir. He removed their Eimurin and placed them in a bowl to burn.

(b) The Beis ha'Sereifah was outside Yerushalayim.

(c) When the bodies of the Par and the Sa'ir were eventually taken out to the Beis ha'Sereifah, they rendered Tamei both the people who dealt with them and their clothes ...

1. ... as soon as they left the walls of the Azarah - according to the Tana Kama?
2. ... only after they had already set fire to most of the bodies - according to Rebbi Shimon.
(a) How could they now burn the Eimurin of the Par and the Sa'ir, asks the Gemara? - Have we not learned above that they were burned at the same time as the Kohen Gadol Leined the Parshah after he had removed the Kaf and the Machtah (after the *second* time that he wore the Bigdei Lavan), whereas now he was still wearing the Bigdei Lavan for the *first* time?

(b) We amend 'Nasnan be'Meigis *ve*'Hiktiran al Gabei ha'Mizbe'ach' - to 'Nasnan be'Meigis *le*'Haktiran al Gabei ha'Mizbe'ach' (meaning 'in order to burn them on the Mizbe'ach - *later*.

(c) A 'Meigis' is a mixing bowl.

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