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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 57

YOMA 57 - David Warm of Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland, has dedicated the Daf in memory of his dear late mother and father, Devorah bas Dovid & Arieh Leib ben Zvi.



(a) The problem the Gemara has with learning the Matanos of the Heichal from those of the D'vir (from "ve'Chein Ya'aseh le'Ohel Mo'ed") is - that, in the previous Sugya, we learned the Achas Lema'alah in the Kodesh Kodashim by the Par from the goat, and the Sheva Lematah by the Sa'ir from the Par both by means of a Hekesh, and we have a principle in Kodshim that we cannot learn a Hekesh from something that was itself learned by means from a Hekesh?

(b) We answer with the principle that 'Heimenu ve'Davar Acher' is not called a Hekesh - meaning that the original Hekesh is not a proper Hekesh, since both Ma'alah and Matah are written both by the Par and by the Sa'ir, and it is only the number of Matanos that we learn one from the other.

(c) Those who nevertheless consider this a Hekesh answer ...

1. ... 'Mekomos Hu de'Gamri me'Hadadi' - meaning that this is not really a Hekesh from a Hekesh, since, in the *first* Hekesh, we learned one *animal* from the other, whereas in the *second*, it is the *locations* that we are learning from one another, and *not* the animals.
2. ... 'Chutz mi'bi'Fenim be'Chada Zimna Gamar' - meaning that since we need the second Hekesh to learn even what is written explicitly (and not from a Hekesh (seeing as nothing at all is written by the Matanos of the Heichal), we may, at the same time, learn even what is learnt through a Hekesh (with a sort of 'Migu').
(a) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi professed to have seen the Paroches in Rome - with spots of blood from the bull and the goat of Yom Kipur, proving that the blood of the Matanos was supposed to touch the Curtain.

(b) What he saw cannot have been the marks of blood from the Par He'elam Davar shel Tzibur or that of the Se'irei Avodah-Zarah - since *they* were not sprinkled Achas le'Ma'alah and Sheva le'Matah ('ke'Matzlif' - like the Par and Sa'ir of Yom Kipur were), and *he* saw them 'ke'Matzlif'.

(c) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi saw the Paroches in the treasury of the King, where they had taken to help himself to whatever he desired - after he had miraculously cured the princess.

(d) He chose the letters containing royal decrees against the Jewish people, which he subsequently tore to shreds.

(a) In another Mishnah, Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi claimed to have seen the Paroches with the marks of blood from the Par He'elam Davar shel Tzibur or that of the Se'irei Avodah-Zarah - proving there, the blood had to touch the Paroches (as opposed to the Chachamim, who maintained that it was unnecessary).

(b) What he saw cannot have been the blood-stains from the bull and the goat of Yom Kipur - because he saw the bloodstains *not* 'ke'Matzlif', and on Yom Kipur, it had to be 'ke'Matzlilf'.

(a) When Rebbi Yirmiyah (a Yerushalmi) heard that, according to Rava, if the blood of the bull and of the goat got mixed up before any of it had been sprinkled in the Kodesh Kodashim, the Kohen Gadol would simply sprinkle one above and seven below, thereby fulfilling both the Mitzvah concerning the bull and that of the goat simultaneously - he exclaimed 'Stupid Babylonians! Is it because they reside in a dark land (i.e. it is very deep, surrounded by mountains), that they make statements that are dark (do not enlighten, because they are false)? According to Rava, he will be placing the blood of the goat above, before he has placed the blood of the bull below (and we have already learned that he must complete the Matanos of the bull before starting with those of the goat?

(b) Rebbi Yirmiyah therefore rules that he makes one Matanah le'Ma'alah and one le'Matah for the bull, and then repeats this for the goat.

(c) When the blood of the Par and of the Sa'ir got mixed up, but after the Achas le'Ma'alah of the blood of the Par - Rav Papa ruled that the Kohen Gadol simply sprinkles the blood 'Sheva le'Matah' for both the Par and the Sa'ir, and then 'Achas le'Ma'alah' for the Sa'ir.

(d) Rava, having learned his lesson from Rebbi Yirmiyah - said to Rav Papa 'If Rebbi Yirmiyah referred to us as stupid Babylonians, then he will now refer to us as *very* stupid Babylonians (because we don't learn when we are corrected) - how can one perform the Matanos shel *Matah* of the Sa'ir, before the Matanos shel *Ma'alah*?

5) So Rava advocated that the Kohen Gadol should complete the Sheva le'Matah for the Par only, and then Achas le'Ma'alah and Sheva le'Ma'alah for the Sa'ir.




(a) If the two cups got mixed up before he began sprinkling the blood of the bull - the Kohen Gadol should sprinkle 'Achas le'Ma'alah ve'Sheva le'Matah', first from the one cup and then from the other (if the first cup contained the blood of the Par and the second one' the Sa'ir, then he has fulfilled his obligation. However, taking into account the possibility that the first cup contained the blood of the Sa'ir, and the second one of the Par, he now sprinkles from the first cup again. One way or another, he will now have made all the Matanos in their correct order.

(b) Rav Papa asks whether, if some of the two sets of blood became mixed (in a third bowl), and some did not, and he sprinkles the blood that remained intact - the remaining blood is even considered Shirayim, since maybe it is only blood that is fit to be sprinkled that is considered Shirayim, but not blood that is not.

(c) If the blood is called 'Shirayim' - it is poured on to the western Yesod of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, whereas if it is called 'Dachuy' (rejected) - it is poured into the Amah in the Azarah, from where it flows out to the valley of Kidron?

(d) Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua disagrees. According to him, the blood in the third bowl is definitely not considered Dachuy - because this blood was not positively rejected, since it was originally received in the two bowls from which the Kohen Gadol would later sprinkle.

(a) the Tana Kama of the Beraisa resolves the discrepancy between the Pasuk in Vayikra (regarding the Chatas Sa'ir of the Nasi) "ve'es Damo Yishpoch" and the Pasuk (regarding the Chatas Yachid) which writes "ve'es *Kol* Damo Yishpoch" - by establishing both Pesukim when the Kohen received the blood of a Chatas in *four* bowls; however, the latter Pasuk speaks when he sprinkled from each bowl on to one corner of the Mizbe'ach; whereas the former Pasuk speaks when he sprinkled on each of the corners from the *one* bowl. In the former case, where the blood is not Dachuy, then *all* the blood has to be poured on to the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach; whereas in the latter case, where the blood in the other three bowls is Dachuy, it is only the blood in the *first* bowl that is poured on to the Yesod.

(b) According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon - in both of the above cases, the blood in the other three bowls is poured on to the Yesod.

(c) From the Pasuk which omits the word "Kol" - he precludes the blood which remains on the neck of the Chatas from having to be poured on to the Yesod.

(a) With regard to the Pasuk "... Ish Ish Asher Yekalel es Aviv ve'es Imo ... " - Rebbi Yeshayah learns that, were it not for the words "Aviv ve'Imo Kilel", one would only be Chayav for cursing *both* parents together, but not individually (in spite of the fact that the Torah does not write "Yachdav").

(b) According to Rebbi Yonasan, whenever the Torah does not use the word "Yachdav", then it means individually. Consequently, a person would be Chayav for cursing either his Chayav or his mother - even without the extra Pasuk of "Aviv ve'Imo Kilel". Similarly, he ought to rule that the blood of the Par and of the Sa'ir should be placed separately on the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi, since the Torah does not write "Yachdav".

(c) We try to reconcile our Mishnah even with Rebbi Yonasan by applying the Pasuk "ve'Chiper Aharon al Karnosav *Achas* ba'Shanah" - which Rebbi Yonasan will explain 'Achas ve'Lo Shetayim' meaning that one only places *one* set of Matanos on the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi on Yom Kipur, and not *two*.

(a) The Beraisa however, corroborates the Gemara's original contention, establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yashiyah. The Beraisa's source for ...
1. ... Rebbi Yashiyah, who says that the two sets of blood should be mixed, before being placed on the corners of the Mizbe'ach - is the word "Achas".
2. ... Rebbi Yonasan who says that the two sets of blood should be placed on the corners of the Mizbe'ach independently (in spite of the Pasuk "Achas") - is "mi'Dam ha'Par *u'mi'Dam* ha'Sa'ir" (which suggests that they should be placed separately).
(b) Rebbi Yonasan explains the word "Achas" - to mean that the Kohen Gadol should only place the blood of the Par once and the blood of the Sa'ir, once.
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