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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 53

YOMA 53 - dedicated anonymously sponsored towards a REFU'AH SHELEMAH to Shmuel Yakov ben Ayala Hinda, Ilana Golda bas Chana and Klarees Marcia bas Mammie.



(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Nasan Aharon es ha'Ketores al ha'Eish *Lifnei Hashem* - that the Kohen Gadol had to arrange the Ketores on the Machtah when he was already inside the Kodesh Kodashim, and not before he entered (like the Tzedokim used to do).

(b) Abaye (amending Rav Yosef's answer) explains the need for the second Pasuk (quoted in the Beraisa) "ve'Chisah Anan ha'Ketores" - to include even the *leaves* of the Ma'aleh-Ashan plant (and not only the root).

(c) The Kohen Gadol might have been Chayav Misah even without this Pasuk - for entering the Kodesh Kodashim unnecessarily (as the Torah writes "ve'Al Yavo ve'Chol Eis el ha'Kodesh").

(d) Rav Ashi establishes the Beraisa (which is Mechayev Misah for bringing the Ketores with any of the ingredients missing) even there where he entered the Kodesh Kodshim on purpose - but with two lots of Ketores, one complete (which absolves him from Misah for entering empty-handed), the other, without the Ma'aleh-Ashan.

(a) We learn from "ve'Chein Ya'aseh le'Ohel Mo'ed *ha'Shochen Itam*" - that even in Mishkan Shiloh and in the Beis Hamikdash Ma'aleh-Ashan must be added (and not only in the Mishkan in the desert).

(b) Rav Sheshes explains that the Derashah from "ve'Chisah" - comes to include the Ketores that was brought throughout the year.

(c) The smoke spread across the ceiling and then down the walls - before filling the entire Kodesh Kodashim.

(a) According to Rav Ashi, we need one Pasuk ("Ki be'Anan Era'eh el ha'Kapores") to teach us the Mitzvah (of Ma'aleh-Ashan), and the second Pasuk ("ve'Chisash Anan ha'Ketores") to teach us that it is crucial to the Avodah. According to Rava, one Pasuk comes for the warning ("ve'Al Yavo, Ki be'Anan"), the other for the punishment ("ve'Chisah Anan ha'Ketores ... ve'Lo Yamus").

(b) The Chiyuv Misah by the Pasuk "ve'Al Yavo ve'Chol es el ha'Kodesh" is for entering the Kodesh Kodashim empty-handed.

(a) Rebbi Elazar in a Beraisa learns the warning and the death-sentence from the same two Pesukim "ve'Lo Yamus" and "Ki be'Anan Era'eh el ha'Kapores". The former speaks *after* Nadav and Avihu's death (since the Torah first wrote "Acharei-Mos Sh'nei B'nei Aharon"; but the latter speaks *before* - since the Torah wrote "*Era'eh el ha'Kapores" (in the future - implying that it had not yet happened).

(b) Seeing as the death-sentence for entering the Kodesh Kodashim had not yet been issued - that cannot have been the sin that resulted in Nadav and Avihu's death.

(c) According to this Beraisa, they died because they issued a ruling in front of their Rebbe, Moshe Rabeinu - they ruled that despite the Divine fire that consumed all the Korbanos, it was nevertheless mandatory to kindle a natural flame on the Mizbe'ach, too.

(d) They died for the sin of ruling in front of their Rebbi - even though this ruling was correct.

(a) The Bamah was in Giv'on (before Shlomoh built the Beis Hamikdash) - and Shlomoh was bringing Korbanos there.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "va'Yavo Shlomoh le'Bamah Asher be'Giv'on Yerushalayim" from the fact that the Pasuk writes *li*'Yerushalayim" (implying that Giv'on is synonymous with Yerushalayim), and not "*... mi*'Yerushalayim" or "*min* ha'Bamah *li*'Yerushalayim" - that when he left Giv'on for Yerushalayim, he walked backwards, facing the same way as when he went from Yerushalayim to Giv'on.

(c) The Kohanim in their Avodah, the Levi'im in their Duchan and the Yisre'elim in their Ma'amados would take leave of the Azarah in the same way.

(a) The Din of taking leave walking backwards is not confined to the Beis Hamikdash - it applies equally to someone who takes leave from his Rebbe.

(b) When ...

1. ... Rebbi Elazar's Rebbe, Rebbi Yochanan, took leave from *him* - he would bow low and remain like that until Rebbi Yochanan could no longer see him.
2. ... *he* took leave from Rebbi Yochanan - he would walk backwards until Rebbi Yochanan could no longer see him.
(c) When Rava took leave of his Rebbe, Rav Yosef - he walked backwards, knocking his legs against the threshold with such force, that it became covered with blood.

(d) When Rav Yosef (who, due to his blindness, was initially unaware of what was happening), was informed of Rava's behavior, he blessed him that he would become the Rosh Yeshivah (a Berachah which later came true).




(a) Before saying "Oseh Shalom" - one should take three steps back.

(b) Rav Mordechai ask Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who made this statement, why he did not add that he must first wait a little before returning to his place - because someone who returns to his place immediately, can be compared to a dog who returns to his vomit.

(c) We learn from the Pasuk "mi'Yemino Esh-Das Lamo" - that the right side has precedence.

(d) The Tana quotes a second Pasuk to teach us that the right hand is more important "Yipol mi'Tzidcha Elef, u'Revavah mi'Yeminecha" - because, from the previous Pasuk we might have thought that Hashem gave the Torah with His right hand, not because of any preference, but because it is natural to use one's right hand.

(a) When Rava saw Abaye bowing down, first to his *right* and then to his *left* - he pointed out that by *right* and *left*, Chazal did not mean one's *own* right and left, but *Hashem's*. Consequently, he should bow down *first* to his *left*, and then to his *right*. (Note: The custom to bow straight forward when saying 've'Al Kol Yisrael' was introduced later by the Mordechai.)

(b) The source for this is the Pasuk "Shivisi Hashem Lenegdi Tamid" - which teaches us that one should always consider as if the Shechinah was in front of him.

(c) Rav Chiya Brei de'Rav Huna said that he saw Abaye and Rava going back three steps bowing down all the time.

(a) The text of the Kohen Gadol's Tefilah on Yom Kipur is initially presented as 'May it be Your will ... that this year should be rainy and hot. But this cannot be right - since there is no advantage in a hot year. The correct text must therefore read 'if it is hot, let it at least be rainy'.

(b) Besides a prayer for the continuity of the Kingdom of Yehudah and for Parnasah, Rav Yehudah added that Hashem should not accept the Tefilos of travelers who prayed that the rain should stop.

(c) Rebbi Chanina ben Dosa's Tefilah overrode that of the Kohen Gadol - when he was traveling, and, following his prayer to stop the rain, the rain did indeed stop. When he came home, he prayed for the rain to resume - and it did.

(d) A certain Kohen Gadol (Shimon ha'Tzadik - see Tosfos Yeshanim) Davened a long prayer and caused a scare - because, he argued, he was Davening on the people's behalf, and that the Beis Hamikdash should not be destroyed. They told him not to do it again.

(a) The Even Shesi'ah was the stone around which the world was created. It had been there since the days of the early prophets (i.e. David and Shmuel).

(b) It protruded three finger-breadths above ground level, and stood in the Kodesh Kodashim in place of the Aron. (Note: Presumably, in the time of the first Beis-Hamikdash, the Aron stood on it.)

(c) The Kohen Gadol then stood between the poles of the Aron and proceeded to sprinkle the blood of the Parah (which he had fetched from the Azarah from the Kohen who was stirring it) 'Achas Lema'alah, ve'Sheva Lematah' (one time upwards and seven, downwards).

(d) He sprinkled the blood 'ke'Matzlif' - meaning 'like they gave Malkus' , beginning between the shoulder-blades and then mving down, one lash beneath the other. The blood did not actually touch the Aron (or the Even Shesi'ah).

(a) As he sprinkled eight times towards the Aron - he said 'Achas' (by the sprinkling Lema'alah), 'Achas ve'Achas', by the first sprinkling Lematah, Achas u'Shetayim' by the second ... and so on.

(b) When he had finished - he placed the bowl on a golden base in the Heichal.

(c) They then brought him the goat (la'Hashem), which, after Shechting it and receiving its blood, he proceeded to do with it exactly as he had done with the bull - with regard to sprinkling its blood towards the Aron.

(d) According to the Tana Kama, when he had finished, he placed the bowl with the remaining blood of the goat on to a *second* golden base in the Heichal - Rebbi Yehudah maintains that there was only *one* golden base. Consequently, he first had to take the bowl with the blood of the Par, before placing that of the Sa'ir on the same base.

(a) He then stood in the Heichal and sprinkled first the blood of the Par and then, that of the Sa'ir, towards the Paroches, in the same way as he had sprinkled it in the Kodesh Kodashim.

(b) He then mixed the two lots of blood - by pouring the blood of the bull into that of the goat.

(c) The Tana of our Mishnah writes, not 'mi'she'Nignaz ha'Aron' but 'mi'she'Nital ha'Aron' - signifying that in his opinion, the Aron was captured and taken to Bavel, and not hidden on the premises of the Beis Hamikdash, as others maintain.


1. According to Rebbi Eliezer - "Chemdas Beis Hashem"(when the Pasuk describes what Nevuchadnetzar took back with him to Bavel) - refers to the Aron.
2. And according to Rebbi Shimon "Lo Yivaser *Davar*, Amar Hashem" - refers to the Aron.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer consolidates his opinion with the Pasuk "Vayetzei mi'Bas Tzi'on *Kol Hadarah*" - which he interprets as if it was written "Kol Chadarah" (meaning the Aron which was hidden in the room of the Kodesh Kodashim).

(b) Rebbi Yehudah ben Lakish explains the Pasuk (written with regard to the Aron) "Vayera'u Roshei ha'Badim ... Vayihyu Sham *ad ha'Yom ha'Zeh*" - to mean that the Aron is still in the Beis Hamikdash today.

(c) Ula disagrees with the quotation in the name of Rebbi Shimon (quoted in the previous question). In his opinion, Rebbi Shimon agrees with the opinion of the Tana of our Mishnah, and he learns it from the same source as Rebbi Yehudah ben Lakish.

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