ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafYoma 44
YOMA 44 (1 Adar 5759) - dedicated by my mother on the Yahrzeit of my
father's father, Mordecai [ben Elimelech Shmuel] Kornfeld, who perished in
the Holocaust along with most of his family. May the deaths of the Kedoshim
of the Holocaust atone for Klal Yisrael like Korbanos.
(a) The Torah writes in Acharei-Mos "ve'Chol Adam Lo Yihye be'Ohel Mo'ed ...
be'Vo'o Lechaper ba'Kodesh". We learn from ...
1. ... "be'Ohel Mo'ed" - that the (Torah) prohibition for anyone to be
present when the Kohen Gadol entered with the Ketores, is restricted to the
Heichal, but does not apply to the Azarah (we will see on the following Amud
what status the Ulam has).
(b) And we learn from ...
2. ... "ba'Kodesh" - that it also incorporates Mishkan Shiloh and the Beis
Hamikdash (and is not restricted to the Mishkan in the desert).
1. ... "be'Vo'o Lechaper" - that the prohibition extends to the Matan Damim
(of the Par and the Sa'ir), and is not restricted to the Ketores.
(c) We learn from the order of the Pasuk "ve'Chiper Ba'ado, u've'Ad Beiso,
u've'Ad Kol Kehal Adas Yisrael" - that his own Kaparah precedes that of the
other Kohanim, and the Kaparah of the Kohanim precedes that of the rest of
2. ... "Ad Tzeiso" - that it extends to the time of his exit (i.e. even
after he has concluded the Avodah).
(a) The Beraisa requires "be'Vo'o Lechaper" to include the Matan Damim in
the prohibition. Otherwise, we would have thought that it is restricted to
the Ketores - because of the Pasuk "ve'Chiper Ba'ado, u've'Ad Beiso, u've'Ad
Kol Kehal Adas Yisrael", which implies a Kaparah that incorporates himself,
the Kohanim and the whole of K'lal Yisrael (i.e. the Ketores, since the bull
atones exclusively for the Kohanim, and the goat, for the rest of K'lal
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Korach "Vayiten es ha'Ketores Vayechaper al
ha'Am" - that the Ketores atones.
(c) The Ketores atones specifically for the sin of Lashon ha'Ra - because
'Yavo Davar she'be'Chasha'i, vi'Yechaper al Ma'aseh Chasha'i' (the Ketores,
which is brought in a secret place, atones for the sin which one tends to
perform in private - see Erchin 16a).
(d) The Mishnah in Keilim states that also the twenty-two Amos between the
Ulam and the Mizbe'ach must be vacated. Rebbi Elazar explains that that
applies only to the Avodos of the Heichal (i.e. the bringing of the Ketores
on the Mizbach ha'Ketores every morning and evening); but when the Kohen
Gadol performed the Avodos in the Kodesh Kodashim, it was only necessary to
vacate the Heichal (and not Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach).
(a) On *three* occasions (besides that of the bull and the goat of Yom
Kipur) the blood of the Korban was sprinkled towards the Paroches. One of
them was the bull of the Kohen Gadol's Chatas - the other *two* were the Par
He'elam Davar shel Tzibur and the Chatas of Avodah-Zarah.
Having clarified the difference between the need to vacate the Heichal for
the *Ketores* of both the Heichal and the Kodesh Kodashim (but Bein ha'Ulam
ve'la'Mizbe'ach only for that of the Kodesh Kodashim) - Rebbi Yossi did not
deem it necessary to extend the distinction to the *Matan Damim* of the
Heichal and that of the Kodesh Kodshim, since the distinction there will be
exactly the same as that of the Ketores.
(b) With regard to vacating even the area of Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach,
Rebbi Yossi in the Beraisa differentiates between the Avodah of Haktarah and
the other Avodos. We currently explain Haktarah to refer to the Avodah of
the Ketores in the Kodesh Kodashim. What he is therefore saying is that the
Heichal must be vacated even for the Avodos of Matan Damim in the Kodesh
Kodashim, but Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach, only for the Haktarah. If that
is so, the Beraisa negates Rebbi Elazar, who said that it is not necessary
to vacate the area between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach for the Avodah in the
Kodesh Kodshim - even for the Haktarah of the Ketores.
(c) We answer that Haktarah refers to that of the Heichal (and not of the
Kodesh Kodashim). However, this creates a problem with the continuation of
the Beraisa - which explains the advantage of the Heichal over the Bein
ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach as being that one must vacate the Heichal even
during the Avodos that are not Haktarah - which we take to mean the Avodos
of Matan Damim. Why did Rebbi Yossi define the stringency of the Heichal
over Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach as being that one must leave the former
even for the Matan Damim of the Kodesh Kodashim, whereas the latter needs to
be vacated only for the Haktarah of the Heichal? Why did he not differentiate between the Haktarah of the Heichal and the Haktarah of the
Kodesh Kodashim, and say, that whereas one needs to leave the Heichal both
for the Haktarah there and for the Haktarah in the Kodesh Kodashim, one only
needs to vacate Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach for the Haktarah in the
Heichal, but not for that of the Kodesh Kodashim?
(d) We answer that when Rebbi Yossi gives the advantage of the Heichal over
the Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach as being that one must vacate the Heichal
even during the Avodos that are not Haktarah, he is not referring to the
Matan Damim (as we thought); what he means is not the Haktarah of the
Heichal, but the Haktarah of the Kodesh Kodashim (which conforms with the
contention that we just made).
We learn that the Heichal must be vacated by the Avodos P'nim of the Par
Kohen Mashi'ach, the Par He'elam Davar, and the Se'irei Avodas Kochavim -
from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Kaparah" "Kaparah" (which is written in each of
the three cases, as well as by Yom Kipur).
(a) The Mishnah in Keilim divides Eretz Yisrael into ten levels of
Kedushah. We try to prove from the fact that Chazal decreed that Bein
ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach must be vacated, that these ten levels must be
mi'd'Oraysa - because, if they were mi'de'Rabbanan, then, why, when when
they decreed on the vacation of *Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach* (since we
learnt earlier that the Torah's obligation is restricted to the Heichal) -
because the Kohanim might mistakenly go from there into the Heichal, and
*not* on the *rest of the Azarah* (which, min ha'Torah we are now currently
saying, has the same Kedushah as Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach) - for the
same reason as they decreed by Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach?
(b) We repudiate that contention - on the grounds that, even if the ten
levels of Kedushah were mi'de'Rabbanan, there would be good reason not to
extend the decree to the rest of the Azarah, since the Mizbe'ach (which
divided between the two areas) would suffice to remind the Kohanim not to
enter the Heichal via Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach.
(c) We then try to prove from the same decree that the Kedushah of the Ulam
and that of the Heichal must be one and the same - because if they were not,
then seeing as the need to vacate the *Ulam* itself would then be no more
than mi'de'Rabbanan, how could they possibly extend the decree to *Bein
ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach* (which would be a 'Gezeirah li'Gezeirah')?
(d) It may well be, answers the Gemara, that the Ulam and the Heichal are
two different levels of Kedushah. However, the Kedushah of the Ulam and that
of Bein ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach are one and the same - in which case, Bein
ha'Ulam ve'la'Mizbe'ach is no more than an extension of the decree on the
(a) They made the fire-pan for the daily Ketores out of silver and not out
of gold - because the Torah has pity on the money of Yisrael (i.e. it does
not want them to waste or lose money unnecessarily - and the fire-pan for
shoveling the ashes was not crucial to the Avodah).
Rav Ashi establishes the Beraisa even like Rebbi Yossi - because, in his
opinion, the silver shovel held a Sa'ah *Midbaris*, but the one of gold,
three Kabin *Yerushalmi'os* - because they added one sixth on to the
measurements (i.e. the six Kabin in the silver pan now become five), in
which case, the spillage will have been *two* Kabin Yerushalmi'os, as the
(b) They did not require two fire-pans for the Avodah of Yom Kipur - in
order to make it easier for the Kohen Gadol, to prevent him from becoming
over-burdened (from the combination of the many Avodos that he performed,
and the fact that he was fasting).
(c) The Kav of coals which must have spilt on to the floor when (during the
year) the Kohen poured the four Kabin of coals from the silver pan into the
golden one of three Kabin - were subsequently swept into the Amah (the
stream that passed through the Beis Hamikdash).
(d) According to Rebbi Yossi in our Mishnah (who says that the Kohen Gadol
poured from a pan holding a Sa'ah into one of three Kabin, *three* Kabin
will have spilled. Rav Chisda maintains that the author of the Beraisa
(which speaks about *two* Kabin spilling) is Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi
Yochanan ben Berokah, who agrees with the Rabbanan (that the silver pan held
*four* Kabin) only in his opinion, the Kohen Gadol carried the coals in a
pan of *two* Kabin.
(a) The pan of Yom Kipur weighed less than that of the whole year - because
the gold of which it was made was beaten into a thinner plate, from which
the pan was made.
(b) The Yom Kipur pan had a longer handle - so that the Kohen Gadol could
support it under his arm-pit.
(c) According to ben ha'Segan - the Yom Kipur fire-pan had a ring attached
to it, that made a noise which warned everyone to leave when the Kohen Gadol
entered (because he was not wearing the Me'il that he wore during the year,
to which were sewn the golden bells which served the same purpose).
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Bereishis "u'Zehav ha'Aretz Hahi Tov" - that
there is a type of gold that is not 'good'.
- ... Zahav Ofir - is gold that came from Ofir.
- ... Zahav Mufaz - is gold that shines like a jewel.
- ... Zahav Shachut - (the acronym of 'she'Nitveh ke'Chut') gold which is spun like a thread.
1. ... Zahav Sagur - is gold whose quality is so good, that, when it is up
for sale, all other 'gold-stores' shut (since nobody is interested in
purchasing any other kind of gold).
(d) Rav Ashi lists only *five* types of gold - because, according to him,
the first two - 'gold' and 'good gold' - are sub-divisions, which are found
by each of the five other qualities.
2. ... Zahav Parvayim - is gold that is red like the blood of bulls (ke'Dam