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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 39

YOMA 36-40 have anonymously sponsored towards a REFU'AH SHELEMAH to Shmuel Yakov ben Ayala Hinda, Ilana Golda bas Chana and Klarees Marcia bas Mammie


***** Perek Taraf be'Kalfi *****


(a) 'Taraf be'Kalfi' means that the Kohen Gadol placed his hands in the box and quickly remove the two lots. This was necessary so that he should not feel which lot was the one for Hashem and take it in his right hand.

(b) He drew the two wooden (or golden) lots, one in each hand.

(c) If the lot for Hashem came up in his *right* hand - the S'gan would say to him 'My master the Kohen Gadol, raise your *right*-hand'!

(d) And if it came up in his *left*-hand - the head of the current Beis-Av would say 'My master the Kohen Gadol, raise your *left*-hand'!

(a) He then placed the two lots on the respective goats' heads, and said ...
  1. ... 'la'Hashem Chatas' - according to the Tana Kama.
  2. ... 'la'Hashem' - according to Rebbi Yishmael. Note: Hashem throughout, refers to the real Name of Hashem.
(b) The Kohanim who were present, would respond with 'Baruch Shem' etc. (as one always did upon hearing either a Berachah or the proper name of Hashem).
(a) The box was made of wood.

(b) It was just large enough to hold the Kohen Gadol's two hands.

(c) They made it Chol without declaring it Kodesh - because K'lei Shares were not made of wood.

(d) The Torah indicates that one should not cause unnecessary financial losses to Jewish property - by Tzara'as Batim, when it orders the owner to clear out the vessels from his house *before* the Kohen declares his house (and everything inside it), Tamei (to spare earthenware vessels, which are not subject to Tevilah, from having to be destroyed).

(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah quoting Rebbi Eliezer, the S'gan and the Kohen Gadol both placed their right-hand in the box and drew one lot each.

(b) If the lot for Hashem came up in the *hand of the S'gan*, it was the *head of the Beis-Av* who would tell the Kohen Gadol to say 'la'Hashem Chatas' - because it would embarrass him for the *S'gan* to do so (seeing as the lot came in the *S'gan's* right hand, and not in his own).

(c) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah holds that the left-hand of the Kohen Gadol is preferable to the right-hand of the S'gan, whereas Rebbi Yehudah holds the opposite.

(d) Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim says - that the S'gan only walked on the Kohen Gadol's right on Yom Kipur in order to take over should the Kohen Gadol become Tamei (implying that until that happened, he did not participate in the Avodah at all).

(a) During the forty years that Shimon ha'Tzadik served as Kohen Gadol, the lot for Hashem *always* came up in the Kohen Gadol's right-hand. It was only after he died, that it began to come up, sometimes in his *right* hand, sometimes in his *left*.

(b) Every Yom Kipur during those forty years, the piece of red wool would turn white, but afterwards, this miracle too, was no longer constant. And the same happened with the Ner ha'Ma'aravi, which had always burned the longest during his life-time, and with the fire of the Ma'arachah, which had always been self-generating.

(c) The significance of the miracle of ...

1. ... the wool on Yom Kipur - was that Hashem had forgiven Yisrael for all their transgressions.
2. ... the western lamp - that the Shechinah rested in Yisrael.
(d) Depending on whether the Menorah was placed from east to west or from north to south, the Ner Ma'aravi was either the middle lamp (which was lit pointing westwards) or the second lamp from the east.
(a) After the death of Shimon ha'Tzadik - the blessing that had previously affected the loaves, was now re-placed with a curse. Previously, every Kohen received a k'Zayis, some were satisfied and some even left over (after being satisfied), whereas from now on, each Kohen would only receive the amount as large as a bean, and was not satisfied (see Agados Maharsha).

(b) After the death of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the modest Kohanim declined to receive a portion of the above, since it did not satisfy anyway (nor were they performing a Mitzvah, since it was less than a k'Zayis).

(c) One Kohen took his friend's portion as well as his own - earning himself the title of 'ben Chamtzan' till the day he died.




(a) Shimon ha'Tzadik knew that he was destined to die the year that he did - because the 'old man' who used to accompany him into the Kodesh Kodshim and out again each Yom Kipur wearing white clothes, wore black clothes that Yom Kipur; neither did he accompany him out again. (See Tosfos Yeshanim.)

(b) He became ill after Sukos and died seven days later.

(c) After he died, the Kohanim stopped using the real Name of Hashem during Duchening (Note: There are two opinions as to which Name of Hashem is referred to here, the Name of four letters - pronounced the way that is forbidden to us, or that of forty-two letters).

(a) Forty years before the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash - the lot for Hashem no longer came up in the Kohen Gadol's right-hand, the piece of red wool no longer turned white and the western lamp did not burn longer than the other lamps.

(b) Raban Yochanan ben Zakai scolded the gates of the Heichal - because they were opening by themselves, a sign inviting the enemy to enter and to destroy the Beis Hamikdash.

(c) The Navi Zecharyah ben Ido already hinted at this phenomenon.

(d) The Beis Hamikdash is called ...

  1. ... "Levanon" - because it whitens (i.e. cleanses) the sins of Yisrael.
  2. ... "Beis Ya'ar" - because, the golden fruit that Shlomoh Hamelech planted there blossomed and grew, just like a forest (as we learnt earlier on Daf 29b.).
(a) The Kohen Gadol mentioned the full Name of Hashem - during the first Viduy and second Viduy (both over the bull), during the third Viduy (over the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach), and when he placed the lot on the head of the Sa'ir la'Hashem.

(b) He said the Name of Hashem three times on each of the first three occasions, and once, on the fourth, making a total of ten times.

(c) According to the Tana in the Beraisa, the opening of the doors of the Heichal could be heard as far away as eight Techumei Shabbos (i.e. eight Mil).

(a) The Ketores caused ...
  1. ... the goats of Yericho - to sneeze.
  2. ... the women of Yericho - to manage without perfume.
(b) It had a similar effect on the brides of Yerushalayim (although the brides of Yericho *did* require perfume - because brides tend to use more perfume than other women [Tosfos Yeshanim]).

(c) That old man told Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah that he once went to Shiloh (where the Mishkan once stood), and he was still able to smell the aroma of the Ketores that had been brought then, coming out of the walls.

(a) According to Rebbi Yanai, Hagralah was crucial, whereas placing them on the heads of the two goats was not.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan holds that neither was crucial.

(c) According to this Lashon, Rebbi Yanai will agree that even Hagralah is not crucial - according to Rebbi Yehudah, who says that whatever was performed with the white garments *outside* the Kodesh Kodshim, was not crucial.

(d) According to this Lashon, they argue according to Rebbi Nechemyah, who says that "Chukah" pertained to whatever the Kohen Gadol performed in the Bigdei Lavan - even if was performed *outside* the Kodesh Kodshim. Nevertheless, he will agree that Hagralah was not crucial, because Hagralah was not an Avodah.

(a) According to the second Lashon, which holds that Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Yanai argue according to Rebbi Yehudah - Rebbi Yanai holds that Hagralah was crucial - even according to Rebbi Yehudah, because the Torah repeats by Hagralah the words "Asher Alah" (and repetition in the realm of Kodshim is a sign that it is crucial).

(b) The problem with the Beraisa, which states '*Mitzvah* Lehagril' - is that, according to the second Lashon, where Rebbi Yanai holds that even Rebbi Yehudah agrees that Hagralah was crucial, who can be the author (according to Rebbi Yanai)?

(c) Rebbi Yanai will have to amend the Beraisa to 'Mitzvah *Lehani'ach*' (but Hagralah is crucial).

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