ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafYoma 38
YOMA 36-40 have anonymously sponsored towards a REFU'AH SHELEMAH to Shmuel
Yakov ben Ayala Hinda, Ilana Golda bas Chana and Klarees Marcia bas Mammie
(a) When Nikanor was returning from Alexandria with the new gates for the
Beis Hamikdash, a storm arose at sea, and he was forced to throw one of the
doors overboard. Rather than throw the second one overboard too, he strapped
it to his body and told the sailors that they could throw him overboard
together with it (it is not however, clear, as to why he did not do this
with the first gate). Immediately, the storm abated. The second miracle was
discovered when they arrived in Acco (it is not clear either, why he took
such a long route to get to Yerushalayim), when the first gate floated up
from underneath the ship, to which it had attached miraculously attached
(b) Others say that it was a sea-monster that swallowed the gate, and spat
it out on to dry land.
(c) The Pasuk "Koros Bateinu Arazim, Rahiteinu Berosim" - refers to the
second miracle, since the acronym of Berosim is 'B'ris Yam' (or, according
to the second version, 'Beri'os Yam'), as if to say that Hashem made a
copper covenant with the sea that it would preserve the copper gates that
were re-placing the cedar ones (Berosim is a type of cedar. And according to
the second version, that the sea creature would transport one of the gates).
(d) These miracles were perpetuated - inasmuch as, when all the wooden doors
were re-placed by golden ones, the gates of Nikanor were left unchanged.
Others say that it was not even necessary to re-place them, since the copper
was of such a quality as to give the impression that they were made of gold.
(a) Chazal applied the Pasuk "Zecher Tzadik li'Verachah" to the former list.
1. The family of Beis Garmu - were guilty of refusing to pass on the secret
of baking the Lechem ha'Panim (that it should remain fresh) to others.
(c) Hugras ben Levi knew of a special way of producing a hauntingly
beautiful sound from his throat, and he too, refused to teach others the
secret. ben Kamtzar the Sofer refused to pass on the secret of how to tie
four pens to the four fingers of one's right hand and write the four letters
of Hashem's four-letter Name simultaneously.
2. The family of Beis Avtinas - refused to pass on the secret of the Ma'aleh
Ashan (that was used in the preparation of the Ketores) to others.
(d) Chazal applied the conclusion of the previous Pasuk ("Zecher Tzadik
li'Verachah") "ve'Shem Resha'im Yirkav" to the people on this list.
(a) The Beis Garmu, experts in removing the bread from the oven without
breaking them, would bake the (intricately-shaped) Lechem ha'Panim inside
the oven - with the result that they were well-baked and did not go moldy
during the week; whereas the bakers from Alexandria, who were not experts in
that art, would bake the loaves outside the oven, with the result that they
were not so well-baked, and did not last the week without going moldy.
(b) Chazal quoted the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Kol ha'Nikra bi'Shemi ve'li'Chevodi
Berasiv ... " to teach us that everything in this world Hashem created for
His honor, for we see that even something as simple as baking bread, the one
person had the know-how, and the other did not - because Hashem wanted that
person to serve Him in this way, and not the other.
(c) Beis Garmu changed their minds and returned to their posts, after
initially refusing to do so - when Beis-Din offered them double wages.
(d) According to ...
1. ... the Tana Kama of the Beraisa - they previously received twelve Manah
which was now doubled to twenty-four (presumably, this was for the entire
family of bakers, and not per person).
2. ... Rebbi Yehudah - they initially received twenty-four Manah, which was
now doubled to forty-eight.
(a) Beis Garmu's motive for retaining their secret - was based on their
knowledge that the Beis Hamikdash would ultimately be destroyed.
Consequently, they were afraid that the secret would fall into the wrong
hands, and would then be used for idolatrous purposes.
(b) No 'clean' white bread was ever found in the family of Beis Garmu - so
that no-one should ever accuse them of deriving benefit from the Lechem
(c) The Beis Avtinas were conversant with the Ma'aleh Ashan, which was
included in the preparation of the Ketores, causing its smoke to go up
straight, even when there was a wind.
(d) They too, like the Beis Garmu, ensured that nobody could suspect them of
deriving benefit from the Ketores - by never allowing any of the women in
their family to use perfume (nor could any woman marry into their family
before they had agreed to abide by that condition).
(a) The prestige of the family of Beis Avtinas fell and that of Hashem rose
with the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash - because that is what happens to
someone who tries to boost his own honor at the expense of that of Hashem.
(b) That child from the family of Beis Avtinas cried when he remembered the
lost glory of his family; and he laughed when he remembered that Hashem
would one day return it to them.
(c) When Shimon ben Luga asked him to point out the Ma'aleh Ashan to him -
he replied that all members of the family were under oath not to reveal its
identity to anyone outside the family.
(d) Rebbi Akiva wept and announced that there was no longer any need to
mention the family of Beis Avtinas derogatively - when that old man handed
him the document which contained the secret information concerning the
identification of the Ma'aleh Ashan (though it is not clear who gave him the
authority to over-ride the above-mentioned oath).
(a) When ben Azai said 'be'Shimcha Yikra'ucha, u'vi'Mekomcha Yoshivucha,
u'mi'she'Lecha Yitnu Lach' - he was referring to the episode of the Beis
Garmu and the Beis Avtinas, who were re-called to their posts, because it
was their's by Divine design.
(b) He was saying that one cannot encroach on what belongs to somebody else
- because Hashem will see to it that it goes back to the rightful owner.
(c) When he said 've'Ein Malchus Noga'as ba'Chaverta Afilu ki'Melo Nima'- he
meant that the moment the time arrives for the next king to rule, his
predecessor will die - like we find with Belshatzar, King of Bavel, who had
to die, the night after he had abused the vessels of the Beis Hamikdash, to
enable Daryavesh (King of Persia), whose time had arrived, to take over from
him (the Babylonian Empire).
(a) Hugras ben Levi's area of expertise lay in his ability to produce a
beautiful sound by placing his finger under his mustache whilst singing.
(b) ben Kamtzar differed from all the others mentioned in our Mishnah -
insofar as he offered no reason for withholding his expertise from others.
(c) "ve'Shem Resha'im Yirkav"- means that their names should go bad i.e.
that nobody would ever be called after them.
(a) When Yirmiyahu lamented "Im Tochalnah Nashim Piryam Olelei Tipuchim" -
he was referring to Do'eg ben Yosef, whose mother used to donate gold coins
equivalent to his increase in weight each day; and when the enemy entered
Yerushalayim, she killed and ate him (due to her state of starvation).
(b) Hashem responded 'What do you expect if you murder a Kohen and a Navi
(Zecharyah ben Yehoyada) in the Beis Hamikdash?'
(c) The baby was called Do'eg (the name of a Rasha) - and 'see what happened
(d) The Torah writes "Zecher *Tzadik* li'Verachah" (in the singular) -
because a Tzadik is remembered for the good due to *his own* merit, but
"ve'Shem *Resha'im* Yirkav" (in the plural) - because a Rasha is remembered
to his shame even on account of the bad deeds of *other Resha'im*.
(a) The source in the Torah of ...
1. ... "Zecher Tzadik li'Verachah" - is Avraham, when, before destroying
Sedom, Hashem, upon mentioning his name, immediately began to praise him.
2. ... "ve'Shem Resha'im Yirkav" - from Sedom, when, the moment Hashem had
occasion to mention them in connection with Lot, He referred to their evil
1. The Tzadik who lived between two Resha'im, but did not learn from their
deeds - was Ovadyah (the Edumite convert who became a prophet), who lived
between Achav and Izevel (Jezebel), but retained his righteousness.
(c) Hashem relates the Berachos of Avraham after stating the curses of
2. The Rasha who lived between two Tzadikim, but failed to learn from their
good deeds - was Eisav, who did not learn from his parents, Yiztchak and
(d) And after relating the curses of Sedom, He states that He will save
(a) Rebbi Elazar explains the Pasuk "Vayar Elokim es ha'Or Ki Tov" - to mean
that, for the sake of just one Tzadik who is good, Hashem decided to
preserve the spiritual light (which He hid at the time of the Creation).
(b) Rebbi Elazar says that someone who (deliberately) forgets something of
his learning - will cause his descendants to go into exile.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Koheles "ve'Zarach ha'Shemesh u'Va
ha'Shemesh" - that before one Tzadik passes away from the world, another
Tzadik is born (to re-place him). An example of this is Eli ha'Kohen, who
died only after Shmuel was born.
(d) When Hashem saw that the Tzadikim would be few - He scattered them among
all the generations (so that every generation would have some).
(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba quoting Rebbi Yochanan, learns from the Pasuk
"ve'Tzadik Yesod Olam" - that the world will continue to exist even for the
sake of just one Tzadik.
(b) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba himself learns it from the Pasuk in Shmuel "*Raglei*
Chasidav Yishmor" - which he interprets to mean "He keeps (the world - even)
*for the sake of* one pious person (seeing as "Chasidav" is written without
a 'Yud' - and can therefore be read "Chasido").
(c) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba quoting Rebbi Yochanan explains this Pasuk to mean
that, when a person passes half his allotted years without sinning, then
Hashem guards him from sin for the remainder of his life ("Raglei" means
'the tail end' according to this explanation).
(d) de'Bei Rebbi Shilo learns from this same Pasuk that - since a person
refrains twice from sinning, Hashem sees to it that he will not sin when the
Yetzer-ha'Ra attacks him the third time ("Raglei" hints to the [two] *times*
that he refrained from sinning - like "Zeh Shalosh *Regalim*" (i.e. times)
to which Bil'am's ass referred).
(a) Resh Lakish learns from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Im le'Letzim Hu Yalitz,
ve'la'Anavim Yiten Chein" - his famous saying 'Ba Litamei, Poschin Lo, Ba
Litaher, Mesay'in Oso' ('Hashem *opens the door* for someone who wants to
sin, but *assists* someone who wants to do good').
***** Hadran Alach Perek Amar Lahen ha'Memuneh *****
(b) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael compare this to two salesmen, one of paraffin
and the other, of spices - the former, to avoid coming into contact with the
paraffin, will ask the purchaser to measure the paraffin, whereas the latter
will measure the spices himself, in order to glean some of their fragrance.
(c) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael learns from the Pasuk "ve'Lo Sitam'u Bahem,
ve'Nitmesem Bam" that sin gives a person Timtum ha'Lev (a [spiritually]
stopped-up heart). The Tana in another Beraisa explains the same Pasuk - to
mean that if a person renders himself just a little impure, then they will
impurify him even more from above; and if he renders himself impure in this
world, then they will make him impure in the World to Come.
(d) And he explains the Pasuk "ve'Hiskadishtem vi'Heyisem Kedoshim" - in
exactly the same vein: that if somebody purifies himself just a little, they
will purify him a lot from above, and if he renders himself pure in this
world, then they will make him pure in the World to Come.