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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 31

YOMA 31 - Dedicated to the memory of Moshe Simcha ben Dovid Z"L Rubner by his parents, Dovid and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva.



(a) According to Ben Zoma, it is obvious that a Chatzitzah will prevent the Tevilah from being effective, like it does by all Tevilos d'Oraysa. The Gemara's She'eilah is confined to Rebbi Yehudah, who holds that this Tevilah is only mi'de'Rabbanan - to remind him to Tovel should he be Tamei, and not to render him Tahor. Maybe, asks the Gemara, Chazal did not apply all the stringencies of a regular Tevilah to this Tevilah, and it will be effective even if there *was* a Chatzitzah?

(b) The Gemara concludes that whatever the Rabbanan instituted, they instituted with all the specifications of a d'Oraysa, in which case a Chatzitzah will render the Tevilah invalid.

(a) The Gemara asks whether 'Bi'ah be'Miktzas Sh'mah Bi'ah, O Lo' - whether someone requires Tevilah before sticking a hand or a foot into the Azarah, in the same way as someone who enters with his entire body does?

(b) We resolve the She'eilah with a Beraisa, which permits a Metzora to stick his right hand and foot into the Sha'ar Nikanor for the Kohen to place the blood of his Asham on to his thumb and big right toe - even though he is not permitted to enter with his entire body; so we see that 'Bi'ah be'Miktzas *Lo* Sh'mah Bi'ah'.

(a) The Gemara then asks whether a Tahor person who is standing *outside* the Azarah, needs to Tovel before taking a long knife and Shechting a Korban which is inside. We know that the Shochet is *not* obligated to stand inside the Azarah (even though the animal *is*) - from the Derashah "ben ha'Bakar Lifnei Hashem" 've'Lo ha'Shochet Lifnei Hashem'.

(b) Ben Zoma might hold that ...

1. ... Tevilah would not be necessary - because it is only when he is standing *inside* the Azarah that Tevilah is required (like the Kohen Gadol, from whom we learn this Tevilah in the first place).
2. ... that it would - because the Shochet might be drawn after his knife and enter the Azarah without having Toveled.
(c) It is possible that the Rabbanan do not require Tevilah before someone who is *not* performing the Avodah enters the Azarah; whereas in this case, where he is *Shechting a Korban*, he will require Tevilah even though he does not actually enter.
(a) 'Mei Nefto'ach' is another name for Ein Itam - the highest spot in Eretz Yisrael.

(b) Originally, David ha'Melech thought to build the Beis Hamikdash there - until it was pointed out to him that the Pasuk "u'Vein Kesefav Shachen" implies that it should be built a bit lower - like the shoulders of an ox.

(c) Abaye reckoned that the spring of Ein Itam was twenty-three Amos higher than the floor of the Azarah.

(d) The height of the Sha'ar ha'Mayim was twenty Amos, plus the three Amos of the Mikveh - place the Mei Nefto'ach on the same level as the Mikveh into which it flowed.

(a) Most ceilings would indeed need to be at least one Amah thick plus an Amah cement, to prevent the water from leaking through. The gates of the Beis Hamikdash however (as well as the ceilings to which they were adjoined) were made of marble, so that a thin ceiling sufficed.

(b) When Abaye said twenty-three Amos, he really meant twenty-three Amos and a fraction. He did not mention it - because it is common to deal with round numbers and not ignore the fractions.



6) They made a point of spreading specifically a linen sheet between the Kohen Gadol and the people when he immersed in the Mikveh on Yom Kipur - to remind him that the main Avodah on Yom Kipur was with white linen garments.


(a) The moment he came out of the Mikveh (from his first Tevilah) - he dried himself, put on the Bigdei Zahav and performed Kidush Yadayim ve'Raglayim from the Kiyor. Then they brought him the Korban Tamid to Shecht.

(b) This undressing differed from all the subsequent undressings - inasmuch as it did not require Kidush Yadayim ve'Raglayim.

(c) A second Kohen needed to complete the Shechitah of the Tamid - because the Kohen Gadol had to quickly take a bowl and receive the blood, since the entire Avodas ha'Yom had to be performed by him on Yom Kipur.

(d) 'u'Meirak Acher Shechitah *Al Yado*'. Al Yado either means 'on his behalf' or 'after him'.

(a) After ...
  1. ... sprinkling the blood of the Tamid shel Shachar - the Kohen Gadol brought the Ketores.
  2. ... bringing the limbs of the Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim (before he brought the Nesachim) - he brought the Ketores.
(b) Normally, the Kohen Gadol Toveled in cold water on Yom Kipur. However, if he was old or finicky, they would heat up the water for him.

(c) They heated the water before Yom Kipur, and then, on Yom Kipur morning, they would pour it into his Mikveh (to take the sting out of the ice-cold water).

(a) According to Rebbi Meir, the Kohen Gadol made Kidush Yadayim ve'Raglayim after he had undressed and after putting on his change of clothing. If so, argued Rav Papa's disciples, Rebbi Meir requires *two* Kidushei Yadayim ve'Raglayim each time he changed into a new set of clothing (rather than one Kidush for the undressing and one for the dressing). That being the case, by the first change of clothing he ought to require two Kidushim no less than by the other changes.
In that case, the author of our Mishnah, which only requires *one* Kidush, cannot be Rebbi Meir.

(b) Rav Papa disagrees. According to him, Rebbi Meir agrees that one of the Kidushei Yadayim ve'Raglayim pertained to the undressing and the other, to the dressing. Only he Darshened "u'Fashat ... ve'Rachatz ... ve'Lavash" - to compare undressing to dressing: in the same way as he made the *second* Kidush after he had *dressed*, so too, did he make the *first* Kidush after he had *undressed* (this does not mean, he maintains, that the first Kidush too, comes for the dressing - like the second Kidush. According to him, it comes for the undressing).

(c) The Rabbanan too, compare the first Kidush to the second: just as the *second* Kidush is performed when the Kohen Gadol is dressed, so too is the *first*. Both Tana'im hold however, that the *first* Kidush comes for the *undressing*, and the *second*, for the *dressing*.

(d) Rav Papa's disciples prove Rav Papa wrong - from a Beraisa in which Rebbi Meir specifically obligated *two* Kidushei Yadayim ve'Raglayim by the *first* change of clothing, one after he had undressed from his Bigdei Chol, and the second after he had changed into his Bigdei Zahav - to conform with their original contention (that Rebbi Meir cannot be the author of our Mishnah).

(a) Rav Papa replied 'I Tanya, Tanya'. If it is a Bersaisa, then I have to relent.

(b) According to the Rabbanan of Rebbi Meir, who omitted the first Kidush Yadayim ve'Raglayim by the Kohen Gadol, we will arrive at the *ten* Kidushei Yadayim ve'Raglayim required by our Mishnah on Yom Kipur - when he makes his last Kidush before removing his Bigdei Zahav to put on his Bigdei Chol.

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