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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 28

YOMA 27, 28, 29 (16 Shevat), 30 - have been dedicated by Gitle Bekelnitzky for the 38th Yahrzeit of Leah bas Mordechai Dovid and Chasya (Bikelnitzky), mother of her late husband, Simcha Bekelnitzky.



(a) Rebbi Yochanan, who lists the Sidur Sh'nei Gizrei Eitzim among the Avodos for which a Zar is Chayav Misah - maintains that it is an Avodah Tamah (a final Avodah) - whereas according to Rav and Levi, it belongs to the Sidur Evarim (arranging of the limbs) on the Mizbe'ach.

(b) The Gemara now attempts to prove Rebbi Yochanan right from the forthcoming Mishnah, where the Memuneh would ask the Kohanim to go and see if the time of Shechitah had arrived, and not the time for the Sidur Sh'nei Gizrei Eitzim - presumably because it was an Avodah Tamah i.e. the final *night*-Avodah, but had it been part of the *day*-Avodah (like Rav and Levi will maintain), it would be part of the arrangement of the limbs on the Mizbe'ach (in which case a Zar would be Patur).

(c) Even if the Sidur Sh'nei Gizrei Eitzim was a *day*-Avodah - the Gemara retorts, the Memuneh would not refer to it, since, as we explained earlier, it could be rectified.

***** Hadran Alach Perek ba'Rishonah! *****

***** Perek Amar Lahem ha'Memuneh *****


(a) The Memuneh was the deputy Kohen Gadol, and he asked the Kohanim to who present to climb up the wall or on to the roof, to see if the time of Shechitah of the Tamid (i.e. shortly after dawn-break) had arrived.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Kedoshim "be'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel" - that the Shechitah of Korbanos must be performed by day.

(c) Whoever saw that the eastern horizon had lit up would call out 'Barkai' - meaning 'light' (from the word 'Barak' - lightning).

(d) Masya ben Shmu'el adds to this 'Ad she'be'Chevron' - in order to evoke the merit of the Avos.

3) A Kohen who defacated needed to Tovel, whereas one who urinated, only required Kidush Yadayim ve'Raglayim from the Kiyor.




(a) The Tana'im in a Beraisa argue whether the Memuneh said 'Barak Barkai', 'Alah Barkai' or 'He'ir P'nei Kol ha'Mizrach ad Chevron'. Alah Barkai is later than Barak Barkai.

(b) When Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira adds to the latter opinion that people were already going to work - he meant the employers; he cannot have been referring to the employees, because the time for workers to leave for work is only after sunrise, as the Gemara explains in Bava Metzi'a 82b.

(a) Avraham Avinu Davened Minchah at mid-day, when the walls facing the east are first covered by a shadow (because until mid-day they cast their shadow towards the west, and the wall-face is lit up by the sun. But at mid-day, the sun shines down on top of the wall, leaving the wall-face in shadow.

(b) Rav Yosef was surprised that we should learn such a thing from Avraham - whose Zerizus was extraordinary and could not be emulated.

(c) We have a precedent however, in the form of a Beraisa, which learns from Avraham that one should be a Zariz and perform the Mitzvah of Milah early in the morning, like he did when he did when he left for the Akeidah.

(a) The earliest time that the Korban Tamid could be Shechted - was at six and a half hours (i.e. half an hour after mid-day); and that is when it was Shechted on Erev Pesach which fell on Friday.

(b) But didn't we just say that Avraham would Daven Minchah from mid-day and onwards, asks Rav Yosef - because he had the sign of the dark (shadowed) walls? In that case, why could they not do the same in the Beis-Hamikdash (i.e. bring the Tamid shel Bein ha'Arbayim as soon as the east-facing walls darkened)?

(c) They would indeed gauge the earliest time to bring the Tamid by looking at the eastern wall of the Beis Hamikdash. However, the walls of the Beis- Hamikdash were built at an angle, so that the sun tended to shine on them for a half an hour after mid-day, and it was only *then*, that they became covered by a shadow.

(d) Alternatively, Avraham was different: either because he was an expert astronomer, and knew exactly when mid-day was; or because he was exceptionally wise ('a Zaken ve'Yoshev bi'Yeshivah'), and was able to determine mid-day through his wisdom.

(a) We learn from the fact that the term 'Zaken' is used by each of the Avos - that they were elders who sat in Yeshivah (See Rabeinu Chananel who explains this to mean that the Shechinah was with them).

(b) We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Lech ve'Asafta es *Ziknei* Yisrael - that even in Egypt there were elders who sat in Yeshivah.
2. ... "Vayomer Avraham el Avdo Z'kan Beiso ... " - that Eliezer too, was a Zaken ve'Yoshev bi'Yeshivah.
3. ... "ha'Moshel be'*Chol* Asher Lo" - that Eliezer was a master over all that his Rebbe (Avraham) taught him.
(c) The acronym of "Hu *Damesek* Eliezer - is '*Doleh u'Mashkeh* mi'Toraso shel Rabo la'Acheirim' (that he also taught Avraham's Torah to others).
(a) We learn from "Eikev Asher Shama Avraham be'Koli" - that Avraham observed all the seven Mitzvos of B'nei No'ach, plus that of Milah.

(b) From the plural form of "ve'Sorosai"- we learn that he kept both the written Torah and the oral one (meaning the Mitzvos de'Rabbanan) - such as Eruv Tavshilin. Note: It is unclear what our Gemara learns from the other expressions quoted in the Pasuk "va'Yishmor *Mishmarti, Mitzvosai, Chukosai*, ve'Sorosai".

9) According to Masyah ben Shmuel, after the man who saw that it was light announced that the east had lit up, somebody asked 'As far as Chevron'? and someone said 'Yes': either the Kohen standing on the ground (the Memuneh) asked 'As far as Chevron?' and the Kohen on the roof replied 'Yes!'. Alternatively, it was the Kohen on the roof who asked the Kohen on the ground 'As far as Chevron?' (i.e. Are you asking me whether the sky has lit up as far as Chevron?' and the Kohen on the ground would answer 'Yes!'


(a) The Gemara is surprised at the statement in our Mishnah that they once confused the shine of the sun with that of the moon - because Rebbi has already taught that, whereas the shine of the rising moon appears as one pillar of light, that of the sun splits into rays.

(b) The confusion occurred on a cloudy day, when even the shine of the moon appeared through the cracks in the clouds in the form of rays.

(c) We learn from here that on a cloudy day, the sun shines everywhere through the cracks in the clouds (even where normally, there would be shade). Besides the fact that it is a good time to spread out skins to dry - we also learn from here that one may not knead the dough for Matzah shel Mitzvah outside.

(a) The sun is more powerful on a cloudy day - because it breaks through the cracks with more force.

(b) The Si'man for this is a tightly-shut barrel of vinegar, which, when pierced by a tiny hole, emits a strong smell (due to the force with which it leaves the barrel).

(c) 'Shavriri de'Chamah Kashu me'Chamah' - means that peering at the sun through a small gap in the clouds will cause blindness more effectively than peering at it directly. The reason for this is similar to the explanation that we just gave - due to the concentration of heat through the small gap.

(d) The sign for this phenomenon - is the fact that a person feels drops of rain falling on his skin more than if he would enter a pool of water.

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