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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 24



(a) If we learn the amount of ashes to be taken for the Terumas ha'Deshen from Terumas Ma'aser - then the Kohen will need to take one tenth (some say, one hundreth), but if we learn it from Terumas Midyan - then he will need to take only one five hundreth.

(b) In fact, we learn a Gezeirah Shavah from the Minchah, in which case, the Kohen will be obligated to take at least a fistful - though if he wants, he is permitted to take more.

(a) According to Rav, a Zar (a non-Kohen) is Chayav Misah (at the Hand of Hashem) for only four of the Avodos: Zerikah (sprinkling the blood), Haktarah (burning the Korban on the Mizbe'ach), Nisuch ha'Mayim (the water libation on Sukos) and the Nisuch ha'Yayin (which accompanied the Korban Tamid).

(b) This does not necessarily mean that the Zar is permitted to perform all the other Avodos - only that he is not Chayav Misah if he does.

(c) Rav precludes from the Derashah ...

  1. ... "Avodas Matanah" - 've'Lo Avodas Siluk' (i.e. the Terumas ha'Deshen).
  2. ... "va'Avadtem" - 'Avodah Tamah - ve'Lo Avodah she'Yesh Achareha Avodah' (i.e. Shechitah, Kabalah and Holachah).
(d) From the phrase "le'Chol D'var ha'Mizbe'ach" - Levi adds the Terumas ha'Deshen to Rav's list.
(a) According to Levi, we do not preclude an Avodas Siluk - provided it is an Avodah Tamah.

(b) Rav includes (from "le'Chol D'var ha'Mizbe'ach") the four occasions that one sprinkles the blood of the bull seven times towards the Paroches: 1. the Par He'elam Davar shel Tzibur (when the community transgress on a sin that carries with it a Chiyuv Kares; 2. the Par Mashi'ach (when the Kohen Gadol sins ... ) 3. the bull of Yom Kipur; 4. the bull of a Metzora.

(c) Rav learns his original Derashah from " D'var ha'Mizbe'ach", and the latter Derashah of Rav from the word "Chol".

(a) According to Levi, "le'Chol D'var ha'Mizbe'ach" is a Klal, and "Avodas Matanah" a Prat, to teach us that inside the Kodesh Kodshim, a Zar is only Chayav for performing an Avodas Matanah, but not an Avodas Siluk (i.e. removing the fire-pan with the Ketores from the Kodesh Kodshim - even though he is Chayav anyway, for entering the Kodesh Kodshim). However, he then infers from "u'li'mi*'Beis* la'Paroches", that this exemption does not apply to the Avodos Siluk outside the Kodesh Kodshim.

(b) The Avodah Tamah (in the Kodesh Kodshim) that is included in "va'Avadtem" - is that of placing Ketores on to the fire in the fire-pan. And the Avodah that is precluded (because it is not Avodah Tamah) is that of taking the pan inside (since the Chafinah and the burning have still to follow).

(c) Even though "va'Avadtem" is written by the Avodas P'nim (just like "Avodas Matanah" is), Levi nevertheless rules that also by the Avodas Chutz (e.g. during the year) we require Avodah Tamah for a Zar to be Chayav (even though this is not the case by Avodas Siluk) - because of the 'Vav' in "va'Avadtem" which comes to teach us that the concession of Avodah Tamah applies to Chutz too.




(a) Avodas Siluk in the Heichal - refers to the removal of the ashes from the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores or from the Menorah (both Avodos Tamos).

(b) We resolve the She'eilah (whether we compare Avodas Siluk in the *Heichal* to Avodas Siluk in the *Kodesh Kodshim* - where a Zar is Patur [according to Levi], or to the Avodas Siluk in the Azarah - where he is Chayav) - from the extra 'Vav' in "*u*'le'mi'Beis la'Paroches", which gives the Heichal the same Din as the Kodesh Kodshim (to exempt a Zar).

(a) Even though we compare the Avodah in the Heichal to the Avodah in the Kodesh Kodshim (in which case we will presumably render Chayav a Zar who performs an Avodah Tamah in the Heichal), a Zar will nevertheless not be Chayav for ...
1. ... placing the loaves on the Table - because the bowls of frankincense have still to be placed (in which case, it is not an Avodah Tamah).
2. ... placing the bowls of frankincense next to the loaves on the Table - because they still need to be removed from the table to be burned (on the following Shabbos).
(b) Nor will he be Chayav for ...
1. ... arranging the lamps of the Menorah in the morning - because the wicks still need to be placed.
2. ... for placing the wick on the Menorah - because they still need to pour in the oil.
3. ... for placing the oil in the Menorah - because they still need to kindle it that evening.
4. ... for kindling the Menorah - because kindling the Menorah is not an Avodah.
(c) The Tana of the Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "ve'Nasnu B'nei Aharon ha'Kohen Eish al ha'Mizbe'ach ve'Archu Eitzim al ha'Eish" - that setting fire to splinters of wood, in order to re-light one of the fires on the Mizbe'ach, is considered an Avodah - yet kindling the Menorah is not (see Tosfos Yeshanim).

(d) A Zar is not Chayav Misah ...

1. ... for arranging the wood on the Ma'arachah - because the two blocks of wood still need to be arranged on the Mizbe'ach.
2. ... for arranging the two blocks of wood on the Mizbe'ach - because the Korbanos have yet to be arranged on the Mizbe'ach.
7) Rebbi Yochanan disagrees with Rav. According to him, a Zar who arranges the two blocks of wood on the Mizbe'ach is Chayav - because, in Rebbi Yochanan's opinion, arranging the Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach is a *new* Avodah, which renders the Sidur Sh'nei Gizrei Eitzim an Avodah Tamah.


(a) A Zar is Chayav Misah if he performs Haza'ah with the blood of a Chatas ha'Of, or if he performs Mitzuy (squeezing the blood on the Mizbe'ach) or Haktarah of an Olas ha'Of - since these are Avodos Tamos.

(b) The Tana declares a Zar Chayav Misah even for bringing a Pasul Korban on the Mizbe'ach - provided the Pesul falls under the category of Pesulo ba'Kodesh, in which case once it is taken up to the Mizbe'ach, it is not taken down.

(a) "Asher Yachdav Namtik Sod, be'Veis Elokim Nehalech *be'Ragesh*" - teaches us that it is a Mitzvah to create an aura of excitement in the Beis- Hamikdash. That is the source of the four Payasos, when all the Kohanim gather together to determine which Avodah goes to which Kohen.

(b) Rav Nachman holds that, when the Payasos were performed, the Kohanim wore their *Bigdei Chol* (weekday clothes) - because if they were wearing their Bigdei Kehunah, we are afraid that the tough Kohanim might go ahead and perform the Avodah immediately (even though they did not merit in the Payis).

(c) Rav Sheshes says that the Kohanim wore the *Bigdei Kehunah* for the Payasos - because if they would wear Bigdei Chol, we are afraid that the Kohanim who merited, in their excitement, will forget and start with the Avodah immediately (and if they are wearing Bigdei Chol, they will be Chayav Misah).

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