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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 20



(a) The first Avodah each morning in the Beis Hamikdash was the Terumas ha'Deshen, which took place at around dawn-break.

(b) They would deposit the ashes - at a given point on the east side of the ramp, where it would miraculously disappear.

(c) On Yom Kipur, the Kohanim would begin with the Terumas ha'Deshen at midnight - and on Yom-Tov, at the end of the first watch (two hours earlier).

(d) On Yom-Tov, by the time dawn arrived, the Azarah was full of people - who had come to bring their (Yom-Tov) Korbanos, immediately after the Korban Tamid.

(a) 'Evarim she'Pak'u' - are limbs that were burning on the Mizbe'ach which had burst from the intense heat. The explosion would cause them to fly off the Mizbe'ach on to the floor of the Azarah, where the Kohanim subsequently found them.

(b) Limbs that they found on the ground beside the Mizbe'ach ...

1. ... *before* midnight - they would return to the Ma'arachah (and Me'ilah applied to them should a Kohen inadvertently derive benefit from them).
2. ... *after* midnight - they would not return (and Me'ilah did not apply).
(c) The reason that Me'ilah was applicable to the former and not to the latter was because in the former case, the limbs, which had not yet completely burnt up, were not considered consumed, whereas in the latter case, where midnight gave them the Din of having been consumed, the principle of 'Davar she'Na'asis Mitzvaso, Ein Mo'alin Bo' applied.

(d) Once the bone had been fully burnt, there was no Me'ilah - even *before* midnight.

(a) "Kol ha'Laylah ve'Hiktir" - suggests that all night long there is a Mitzvah to burn the limbs on the Mizbe'ach (and should they they fall off, they must be returned); "Kol ha'Laylah ve'Heirim" - implies that all night long, there is a Mitzvah to remove the limbs that have been burning on the Mizbe'ach, from the Mizbe'ach (in the form of the Mitzvah of Terumas ha'Deshen). Consequently, Rav Darshened that we divide the night into two: the Mitzvah to burn the limbs lasts until midnight, after which the Mitzvah of Terumas ha'Deshen begins.

(b) The problem with this Derashah is from our Mishnah, which gives the time of the Mitzvah of Terumas ha'Deshen on Yom-Tov from the end of the first watch (two hours *before* midnight. But according to Rav, the time for Terumas ha'Deshen only begins (min ha'Torah) from midnight, so how can they bring it forward to an earlier time than that - even on Yom-Tov?

(c) In order to answer the question - Rebbi Yochanan correlates the two Pesukim ("Kol ha'Laylah" and "Ad ha'Boker") like this: having said "Kol ha'Laylah", is it not obvious that the limbs should burn all night? Why then, does the Torah add "Ad ha'Boker"? It must be, in order to bring forward the 'Boker' for Terumas ha'Deshen (according to the need). Consequently, they brought it forward until midnight on Yom Kipur, and until the end of the first watch on Yom-Tov. In fact, the whole night is basically Kasher - for burning limbs that are *not* yet properly burned, and for removing limbs that *are*.



4) They bring the Terumas ha'Deshen forward to ...

1. ... midnight on Yom Kipur - because of the heavy burden that lay on the Kohen Gadol (who had to perform the entire Yom Kipur service on his own.
2. ... the time of the first watch on Yom-Tov - because of the numerous Korbanos that the people would bring on Yom-Tov (the Olos Re'iyah, the Chagigos and the Shalmei Simchah). Consequently, there were a tremendous amount of ashes on the Mizbe'ach, which had to be cleared on to the huge pile of ashes (to the middle of the Mizbe'ach) - known (due to its shape) as the Tapu'ach - for which, the Kohanim needed more time.
(a) 'Keri'as ha'Gever' can either mean when the 'cock crowed' or the 'man cried out' (referring to Gevini K'ruz, who would call the Kohanim to the Avodah each morning).

(b) Rebbi Shilo became upset with Rav because, when he was translating for him, he translated 'Keri'as ha'Gever' as 'the man called out'.

(c) Rav replied 'Ibuv le'Chari Zamer le'Garda'i Lo Mekabluha Mineih' - meaning the princes enjoyed the tune that one played for them on the flute, but when he played the same tune for the weavers, they didn't like it (what Rav meant to say was that when he translated 'Keri'as ha'Gever' for *Rebbi Chiya* (for whom he would sometimes translate) as 'the man cried out', he was happy with it, but Rebbi Shilo - who was not as outstanding a Talmid- Chacham as Rebbi Chiya - did not accept it.

(a) When Rav arrived in Rebbi Shilo's town, Rebbi Shilo happened to be without a translator, so, not recognizing Rav, he accepted his offer to do the job for the time being.

(b) As soon as Rebbi Shilo realized that it was Rav, who often translated for his uncle Rebbi Chiya, he asked him to step down, as he (Rebbi Shilo) was not worthy of such an honor as having the great Rav translate for him.

(c) 'Ma'alin ba'Kodesh ve'Lo Moridin' in our context means - that if a great man begins to translate on behalf of the community, they should not switch in the middle to a man of lesser stature.

(d) Rav's second reason (actually the first reason quoted in the Gemara) for standing down was because - when a person is hired to work for the day then he must do whatever job they ask him to do, even if it is something degrading, such as beating wool - which is normally a woman's job.

(a) Gevini K'ruz was the man who would issue the morning call, calling all the Kohanim to gather and begin the Avodah.

(b) His voice could be heard as far *three* Parsah (twelve Mil) away.

(c) When the Kohen Gadol cried out 'Ana Hashem', his voice could be heard in Yericho, a distance of *ten* Parsah.

(d) This was even more remarkable considering that a. he was fasting (whereas Gevini K'ruz was not), and b. it was during the day (whereas that of Gevini K'ruz took place at dawn-break (which the Gemara considers night in this context).

(a) A person's voice does not carry as well in the day as it does in the night - because the sun's rays impede it.

(b) When Nevuchadnetzar said "ve'Chol Dayrei Ar'a *ke'Lo* Chashivin", he was referring to the sun's rays, which the Gemara calls 'shavings of sawdust' (because that is what they resemble in the glint of the sun.

(c) Some say that the voice of giving birth can be heard from one end of the world to the other, others add also Radaya (the angel who is responsible for watering the earth from the rain both above the earth and below it).
Everybody agrees however, that the voice of the moving sun, the voice of the multitude of Rome and the voice of the Neshamah as it leaves the body fall into that category (see Agados Maharsha, who explains that the term 'voice' here refers to being well-known, and is not to be taken literally).

(d) They prayed that the voice of the soul leaving the body should no longer be heard to such an extent.

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