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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yoma 18



(a) The elders of Beis-Din would address the Kohen Gadol as 'Ishi Kohen Gadol'.

(b) During the seven days of Hafrashah - they would read to him the order of Yom Kipur from Parshas Acharei-Mos.

(c) When they made him read the Parshah - they would tell him that they were doing so because maybe he forgot or maybe he never learnt it.

(a) On Erev Yom Kipur, the elders of Beis-Din would stand him by the eastern gate and pass bulls, lambs and rams before him - to make him reflect about the Avodah of tomorrow.

(b) They withhold food from him on Erev Yom Kipur (i.e. did not allow him to eat a lot) - because a heavy meal causes sleep, and sleep increases the possibility of seeing Keri (presumably stronger than usual in the Kohen Gadol then, because of the high tension).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'ha'Kohen ha'Gadol me'Echav" - that the Kohen Gadol should be superior to the other Kohanim in four areas: strength, looks, wisdom and wealth.

(b) Acheirim learns from "ha'Gadol me'Echav" - that if the Kohen Gadol was not wealthy, the other Kohanim were obligated to make him wealthy.

(c) The Kohen Gadol had to be superior to the other Kohanim in wisdom, and indeed that was the case during the first Beis-Hamikdash. But alas, during the period of the second Beis Hamikdash, they became extremely lax, and Kohanim who were unfit for the post would pay money to the Chashmona'i kings in order to receive the Kehunah Gedolah. That explains how the elders of Beis-Din were able to say to the Kohen Gadol 'Perhaps you never learnt'!

(d) Marsa bas Baytus gave two Sa'ah of Dinrim to King Yanai - so that he should appoint the man to whom she was betrothed (Yehoshua ben Gamla) to the Kehunah Gedolah.

(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, they would pass bulls, rams and lambs before the Kohen Gadol. He did not include goats, like the Tana of the Beraisa did - because, in his opinion, seeing as the goat brought on Yom Kipur, was a Chatas Tzibur, goats would have the adverse effect of reminding him of Yisrael's sins, which in turn, would cause him to feel faint.

(b) They did on the other hand, pass *bulls* before him, despite the fact that the bull on Yom Kipur comes to atone for the sins of his fellow Kohanim - because he would be well-acquainted with the deeds of his fellow Kohanim, and if anything, he would spurn the sinner on to repent (but he would hardly be conversant with all the deeds of the whole of Klal Yisrael, so that, in his helplessness, seeing the goats would have the adverse effect, as we explained.

(c) We learn from here that a wealthy person is well-advised to keep clear of a relative who is a king's officer - because he will know all about his wealth and look for an excuse to claim it from him on behalf of the king.

(a) According to some Tana'im, during the seven days of Hafrashah they would feed the Kohen Gadol food made of flour, and eggs - because they will clear his stomach, thereby removing the need for him to do so on Yom Kipur during the Avodah.

(b) Others object on the grounds that flour and egg dishes heat the stomach and would cause him to see Keri.

(c) According to Sumchus quoting Rebbi Meir, they would not feed him 'Abi' - which stands for *E*srog, *B*eitzim & *Y*ayin Yashan.

(d) Some add white wine, others *B*asar Shamen.

(a) 'Zav Tolin Lo be'Ma'achal, be'Chol Minei Ma'achal' - means that if it is possible to ascribe the Zivus that one sees to an excess of any kind of food, then we do indeed do so, and he is not Tamei.

(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira, during the days of examination, a Zav should refrain from eating 'Chagbi' - *Ch*alav, *G*evinah, *B*eitzim, and *Y*ayin, and Gavam - Mei *G*erisim shel Pul, *B*asar Shamen and *M*urias (a thick bean stew, juicy meat and salty fish-juice).

(c) 've'Lo Kol Devarim ha'Mevi'in Liyedei Tum'ah' comes to includes four more things - garlic, cress, purselane-plant and white-mustard.




(a) Gargir (white-mustard) is referred to in Melachim as 'Oros' - because it lights up the eyes.

(b) Rav Huna says that if one is able to eat white mustard, then one should; if not, then one should pass it over one's eyes.

(c) Rav Papa points out that this applies only to Gargir Metzarna'ah - meaning those that grow on the border which do not have other seeds growing around them to weaken their strength.

8) Rav advises a guest neither to eat eggs, nor to cover oneself at night-time with a garment that his host will wear during the day: the former because it causes Keri, the latter, because he may leave Keri on it, which the host will discover when he wears it in the course of the day.


(a) When Rav and Rav Nachman traveled, they would marry a woman for the one day that they would spend in that town - in order to minimize the Yetzer- ha'Ra with regards to desire for women, because of the principle 'Eino Domeh Mi she'Yesh Lo Pas be'Salo, le'Mi she'Ein Lo Pas be'Salo' ('there is no comparison between someone who *has* bread in his basket to someone who does *not*).

(b) How could they do this, in light of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov, who forbade a person to live in one country and marry a second wife in another - because the half-siblings may one day meet without knowing each other and get married, and have children who will be Mamzeirim?

(c) We reject the Gemara's initial answer (that Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov does not refer to Talmidei-Chachamim, whose children were well-known) - on the basis of Rava, who declares that a man who asks a woman's hand in marriage must then wait 'seven clean days' before marrying her (because she may, as a result of her excitement, become a Nidah)?

(d) The Gemara then answers that they would send a Sheliach seven days in advance to find them a short-term wife, or that they would marry the women but without consummating the marriage (others take 'Yichudei Havu Meyachdi Lehu' to mean that they did not really marry them at all, but just designated them for marrriage - see Tosfos DH 'Yichudi').

(a) The elders of Beis-Din then handed the Kohen Gadol over to the elders of the Kehunah - who took him to the Lishkas Beis Avtinas (where the Ketores was prepared) to teach him how to perform the Chafinah (taking a handful of Ketores, which was a very difficult Avodah, and which will be discussed later in the Masechta).

(b) They made the Kohen Gadol swear that he would finalize the Chafinah *inside* the Kodesh Kodshim, and not *outside*, like the Tzedokim used to do.

(c) If he was a Talmid-Chacham, he would spend the night Darshening. If he was ....

1. ... unable to Darshen but was sufficiently versed to understand Derashos - then Talmidei-Chachamim would Darshen to him.
2. ... neither able to Darshen, nor to understand a Derashah - then they would get him to read sections of T'nach.
(d) If he was not even capable of reading T'nach, they would read to him from Iyov, Ezra and Divrei Hayamim (because these sections were particularly interesting), and according to the testimony of Zecharyah ben Kevutal - also from Daniel.
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