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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Introduction to Yoma

Yoma 2

YOMA 2 - has been sponsored by Yeshayahu (Jason) ęSchmidtę of West Hempstead, N.Y., a talmid of Rabbi Kornfeld.



(a) Seven days before Yom Kipur, they would separate the Kohen Gadol from Tum'ah, and send him to the Lishkas Farhedrin - because the entire Avodah of Yom Kipur was incumbent upon him.

(b) They needed to prepare a deputy, in case the Kohen Gadol became Tamei and was unable to perform the Avodah.

(c) We learn that the Kohen Gadol had to be married during the Avodah on Yom Kipur from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Vechiper Ba'ado u've'Ad *Beiso*" (which means his wife).

(d) The Rabbanan disagree with Rebbi Yehudah because - if we are worried that his wife might die, then why should we not also be worried that the second wife too, might die, and the third, and so on - 've'Im Kein, Ein le'Davar Sof'!

(a) Seven days before the designated Kohen burned the Parah Adumah, he too, was moved to the Lishkas ha'Even - called by that name because, in order to avoid Tum'ah, all the preparations of the Parah Adumah were done using vessels of stone, of earth or of manure (some say that 'Gelalim' means marble) - which do not receive Tum'ah.

(b) The reason for this stringency is because (in order to demonstrate that a Tevul-Yom is *Kasher* to work on the Parah Adumah - to counteract the Tzedokim, who maintained that he was *not*) they would make the Kohen who was preparing the cow, Tamei, and then, after he had Toveled, he would begin with the preparations . As a result, they were afraid that people might now think that the Parah could be prepared even by someone who was Tamei and had not yet Toveled - so they initiated the above Chumros.

(c) The Lishkas ha'Even was situated specifically in the *north-east* of the Azarah - because the Torah calls the Parah Adumah a 'Chatas' (which is Shechted on the *north*-side of the Azarah - though this is only symbolical of its name, because in fact, the Parah Adumah was not Shechted in the Azarah at all), and because the Torah writes in connection with the Parah Adumah "El Nochach P'nei Ohel Mo'ed" (and "P'nei" here - as it often does - refers to the east).

(a) Resh Lakish learns from the Pasuk: "ha'Birah Asher Hachinosi" - that the entire Beis-Hamikdash is called Birah.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan defines 'Birah' - as a place on the Har ha'Bayis which is called 'Birah'.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk (by the Milu'im) ...
1. ... "Kasher Asah ba'Yom ha'Zeh, Tzivah Hashem *La'asos*" - that just as Aharon and his sons had to make Hafrashah (separate from their wives) for seven days during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im, so too, must the Kohen who prepares the Parah Adumah do likewise.
2. ... "*Lechaper* Aleichem" - that the Kohen Gadol must do the same on Yom Kipur.
(b) The entire Pasuk cannot be referring to the Parah Adumah - because, seeing as the Parah does not come to atone, the word "Lechaper" would be inappropriate.



(a) We learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah "*Tzivah* Hashem La'asos" and "Zos Chukas ha'Torah Asher *Tzivah* Hashem" (in Chukas) - that the Pasuk applies to Parah Adumah as well (and not to Yom Kipur exclusively) - see Tosfos DH 'Ela' as to why we might otherwise need two Pesukim by Yom Kipur.

(b) The Gezeirah-Shavah cannot refer to ...

1. ... Yom Kipur, by which the Torah writes in Acharei-Mos "Kasher *Tzivah* Hashem es Moshe" - because we prefer to compare the two cases where "Tzivah" refers to *before* the Avodah has been performed (whereas "Tzivah" by Yom Kipur refers to *after* the Avodah).
2. ... all Korbanos, by which the Torah writes "be'Yom *Tzavoso* es B'nei Yisrael" - because we prefer to learn "Tzivah" from "Tzivah", rather than "Tzavoso" from "Tzivah".
(c) When we momentarily thought that all Korbanos required Hafrashah, we were referring to every Kohen who serves in the Beis-Hamikdash.

(d) We rejected that contention on the grounds that the word "Tzivah" mentioned by Parah Adumah is closer to "Tzivah" mentioned by the Milu'im than it is to "Tzavoso" of the other Korbanos - only because we have the alternative of learning from a word which is more similar. Otherwise, we would learn the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' even with two different words (such as "ve'Shav" and u'Ba").

(a) How do we know that "Lechaper" does not come to include other Korbanos, asks the Gemara - such as those Korbenos Yachid which come to atone?

(b) The problem with obligating the Kohen concerned to separate seven days in advance - is that one did not know in advance which Kohen would serve on any particular day (since, even on the day when a particular Beis-Av served, the Kohanim who would actually bring the Korbanos were chosen by lots).

(c) We get round this problem - by suggesting that the entire Mishmar of that week should separate for seven days before their week begins.

(d) In fact, we do not learn a *Korban Yachid* from "Lechaper" mentioned by the Milu'im - because we prefer to learn Yom Kipur from there, since both had a fixed time (whereas a Korban Yachid did not).

(a) We cannot learn the Korbanos of the Chag from "Lechaper" the Gemara explains - because they come *three times* a year, as opposed to Yom Kipur, which (similar to the once-only Milu'im) came only *once* a year.

(b) Perhaps we should then learn (Hafrashah from "Lechaper") by ...

  1. ... Pesach (rather than Sukos) - because it is the first Yom-Tov.
  2. ... Sukos (rather than Pesach) - because it has more Mitzvos.
(c) We cannot learn Pesach or Succos from the Milu'im - because whereas the Milu'im entails seven days Hafrashah for *one* day, Yom-Tov entails seven days Hafrashah for *seven* days (so we prefer to learn Yom Kipur, which, like the Milu'im, is also only *one* day).
(a) We initially reject the suggestion to learn Shemini Atzeres (which like Yom Kipur, is also only one day) from "Lechaper" - on the grounds that we prefer to learn Yom Kipur, which does *not follow* other days of Yom-Tov (as Shemini Atzeres *does*).

(b) We repudiate that rejection - because, if a day which does *not* follow other days of Yom-Tov requires seven days Hafrashah, then how much more so, a day which *does*.

(c) The Gemara however, reinstates the initial suggestion (to include Shemini Atzeres) by quoting the Pasuk (by the Milu'im) "Ka'asher Asah ba'Yom *ha'Zeh*" - which Rav Mesharshaya explains to mean 'ka'Zeh' (a day like the one about which the Torah is speaking - which is not preceded by a Yom-Tov), making it a Gezeiras ha'Kasuv.

(d) How can we learn from "Lechaper" that Shemini Atzeres should require Hafrashah, answers Rav Ashi - when the Yom-Tov which Shemini Atzeres concludes (Sukos), does not require it (as we learned earlier)?

9) Even though Shemini Atzeres is considered an independent Yom-Tov in six different regards (as hinted in 'Pezer Keshev') - it is nevertheless considered part of Sukos as far as Tashlumin (making up for not having brought the Chagigah on the first day of Sukos) is concerned.

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