POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafYoma 87
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
1) THE RIGHTEOUS STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN HUMILITY
(a) When Rava saw the people following him in reverence he
worried that it might go to his head, he quoted a Pasuk in
Iyov, which warns a person who becomes conceited that in the
end, he will become insignificant.
2) ONE WHO SINS AND PRESUMES TESHUVAH WILL ATONE
(b) Mar Zutra Chasid reacted similarly when, in his old age,
they carried him on their shoulders (in a sedan-chair).
(c) It is not good for the Resha'im when they *are* favored in
this world (they do not receive their punishment here), and
it is good for the Tzadikim when they are *not* (Ach'av was
favored, while Moshe, on the other hand, was not).
(d) The benefits due Tzadikim are enjoyed by their descendants
(for example, Aharon's two remaining sons [Elazar and
Isamar] did not die at the same time as their brothers due
to the merits of Aharon).
(e) Many Canaanites would have reached the level of Tavi (worthy
of being judges), but they did not, due to the wickedness of
their grandfather, Canaan.
(f) Someone who causes the community to do good will not be
tempted to sin while one who causes the community to sin
will not be given the opportunity to do Teshuvah.
1. HaShem will protect the Mezakeh in order that he not
sit in Gehinom while his disciples sit in Gan Eden.
2. HaShem makes it difficult for the Machati to do
Teshuvah in order that he not sit in Gan Eden while his
disciples sit in Gehinom (proof text).
(a) Question: Why does the Tana repeat the words Echta Ve'Ashuv?
3) INCIDENTS OF REQUESTING MECHILAH
(b) Answer: He learns from this the teaching of Rav Huna citing
Rav, that one who repeats a sin views the matter as
(c) Question: Our Mishnah (that Yom Kipur will not atone for
someone who deliberately sins, while relying on Yom Kipur to
atone for it) appears incompatible with Rebbi (who taught
that Yom Kipur atones even without Teshuvah)?
(d) Answer: Rebbi will agree here, since he is using Yom Kipur
as an excuse to sin.
(e) Question: The Pasuk (Shmuel I, 2:25) Im Yecheta Ish LeIsh
U'Filelo Elokim seems to mean that HaShem (Elokim) will
appease (Filel) even for Aveiros between men (Ish LeIsh)!?
(f) Answer: It means that he will be forgiven only if the judges
(Elohim) find him guilty (Filel) and make him pay.
(g) Question: Then how are we to understand the end of the Pasuk
VeIm LaShem Yecheta Ish, Mi *Yispalel* Lo (it cannot mean
"Who will judge (Filel) him?" since HaShem is not short of
ways by which to punish the man who has sinned against Him)?
(h) Answer: Filel is an expression of appeasement, meaning "If
someone sins against his friend and appeases him, HaShem
will forgive him, whereas if he sins against HaShem, who
will appease HaShem (other than Teshuvah and good deeds)"?
(i) One who wronged another verbally or monetarily, must make it
up to him by appeasing him or paying him back (proof text as
(j) (R. Chisda) The sinner must attempt to appease the victim
three times, with three lines of three representatives
(k) (R. Yosi b. Chanina) However, not more than three times
(l) If the victim of verbal anguish has died, the offender takes
ten men to his grave and begs his forgiveness.
(a) R. Yirmiyah went to R. Aba to appease him for some wrong
that he had done him, and while he was waiting for R. Aba to
exit, R. Aba's maidservant inadvertently poured some sewage
on his head.
(b) R. Yirmiyah quoted the Pasuk in Tehilim, MeiAshpos Yarim (a
play on his name, Yirmiyah) Evyon.
(c) When R. Aba heard R. Yirmiyah quoting the Pasuk, he went out
to see him, and easily forgave him for what he had done (and
begged his forgiveness for the slight).
(d) When someone wronged R. Zeira verbally, he would go and
stand in front of him, to make it easy for him to ask him
(e) R. Huna told his Rebbe, Rav, that he was on his way to kill
someone because he knew that the butcher who had wronged
Rav, would not respond in a positive way, thereby making his
situation in Heaven worse.
(f) His prediction came true when the butcher, looking up and
seeing Rav standing in front of him, slighted Rav.
(g) The butcher was killed right away (by a bone chip).
(h) Rav was learning a chapter of Tanach in front of Rebbi. He
started again from the beginning when R. Chiya arrived, and
a third time for Bar Kapara.
4) THE MITZVAH OF VIDUY
(i) When R. Chanina b.R. Chama joined the group, Rav declined to
start all over again, and he continued, slighting R.
(j) Rav went to ask him for forgiveness on thirteen consecutive
Arvei Yom Kipur.
1. Question: But we learned earlier that it is forbidden
to ask for forgiveness more than three times?
(k) Someone who readily forgives those who have sinned against
him will find that Hashem will give him the same treatment
and all his sins will be forgiven.
2. Answer: Rav took a strict line and went beyond the
letter of the law. (see Rabeinu Chananel).
1. Question: Why did R. Chanina not forgive Rav?
2. Answer: Because he had a dream, in which they suspended
Rav on a date-palm (a sign that one will rise to
3. Since *he* was due to become Rebbi's successor, he
understood that if Rav were to remain in Eretz Yisrael,
and R. Chanina would become the Rosh Yeshivah, it would
have meant that he would have to die (in order to make
room for Rav).
4. Consequently, his refusal to accept appeasement was to
force Rav to leave Eretz Yisrael, and to become the
Rosh Yeshivah in Bavel (which he subsequently did).
(a) The first recital of Viduy is due on Erev Yom Kipur,
immediately after the Seudah HaMafsekes, as soon as one has
brought in the fast (still before nightfall).
5) NE'ILAS HASHE'ARIM
(b) Chazal instituted the recital of Viduy *before* the Seudah
HaMafsekes in case he become unable to recite Viduy after
(c) One nevertheless needs to recite it again after the Seudah
in case one sinned in some way during the Seudah.
(d) Again, Viduy is recited at Shacharis, Musaf, Minchah and
Ne'ilah (ten times, twice during each of the Tefilos).
(e) It is recited by the community at the *end* of each Tefilah
and by the Chazan in the *middle*.
(f) Question: What Tefilos should accompany the Viduy?
(g) Answer: (Rav) Atah Yode'a; (Shmuel) MiMa'amkei HaLev
[unknown]; (Levi) Ki Va'Yom Ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem; (R.
Yochanan) Ki Lo Al Tzidkoseinu; (R. Yehudah) Ki Avonoseinu;
(R. Hamnuna) Elokai Ad SheLo Notzarti... (which was the
Viduy of Rava all year.
(h) (Mar Zutra) Aval Anachnu Chatanu alone suffices.
1. Bar Hamdudi reported that when the Shatz arrived at
Aval Anachnu Chatanu, Shmuel stood up.
2. We learn from this that Aval Anachnu Chatanu is the
(a) On three occasions the Kohanim would Duchan four times
(Shachris, Musaf, Minchah and Ne'ilas HaShe'arim); on a
Ta'anis Tzibur, on the Ma'amados and on Yom Kipur.
(b) Question: What is Ne'ilas HaShe'arim?
(c) Answer (Rav): An extra Tefilah of seven Berachos.
(d) Answer (Shmuel): The Tefilah of Mah Anu, Mah Chayeinu.
(e) Question: But the Beraisa (discussing the Chasimah of the
middle Berachah) clearly indicates that Ne'ilah is a full
Tefilah of seven Berachos!?
(f) Answer: This is a Tiyuvta on Shmuel.
1. Rava praised Ula b.R. Nachis who began Ne'ilah with Ata
Vechartanu and concluded it with Mah Anu, Meh Chayeinu.
(g) Rav said that Ne'ilah exempts one from Ma'ariv.
2. R. Nasan the father of R. Huna b.R. Nasan said that an
individual should say Mah Anu *after* his Tefilah.
1. This is consistent with Rav's position that Ne'ilah is
an extra Tefilah (unlike Shmuel whose Mah Anu would not
2. Question: But Rav holds that Ma'ariv is voluntary (and
may therefore be omitted anyway)!?
3. Answer: Rav's statement above is according to those who
hold that Ma'ariv is obligatory.
4. Question: But the Beraisa (discussing the details of
Ma'ariv and the Havdalah in it) teaches that we *do*
recite Ma'ariv after Ne'ilah!?
5. Answer: It is a Machlokes Tanaim (the Beraisa begins
the next Daf).