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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Yoma 86

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.


(a) Question (on R. Yehudah): The Berasia teaches a cutoff- Lo Sisa and those lesser are atoned through Teshuvah (presum- ably this refers to all Lavin without Lo Yenakeh HaShem)!?
(b) Answer: No, those comparable to Lo Sisa refers to all Lo Sa'aseh with Malkos (but that those with less than Malkos *would* be atoned with Teshuvah alone, as per R. Yehudah).
(c) Question: The Beraisa explaining VeNakeh and Lo YeNakeh implies that Lavin *are* atoned by Teshuvah alone!?
(d) Answer: It is a Machlokes Tanaim (as cited).
(e) Question: How do we know that VeNakeh refers to Teshuvah alone?
(f) Answer: From the Beraisa of R. Elazar (who resolves the apparent contradiction between VeNakeh and Lo YeNakeh- Ve'Nakeh refers to someone who has done Teshuvah, and Lo YeNakeh to someone who has not).
(a) R. Elazar b. Azaryah (citing R. Yishmael) taught there are only three categories (unlike the assumption of R. Masya b. Charash) as Teshuvah is not an atonement, it is a prerequisite for the other three.
1. One who violates an Aseh and does Teshuvah is atoned at that time (proof text).
2. One who violates a Lo Sa'aseh and Aseh, Teshuvah suspends the affliction and Yom Kipur atones (text).
3. One who violates a Kares or Misas Beis Din, his Teshuvah, together with Yom Kipur, suspend the sentence and affliction brings atonement (text).
4. For Chilul HaShem, all of the above only suspend, while death is needed to atone (text).
(a) Question: What defines Chilul HaShem?
(b) Answer (Rav): If I were to take meat from the butcher and not pay immediately (thus causing the merchant to consider me a thief and will come to treat Gezel lightly).
1. (Abaye) That is only a Chilul HaShem in a locale where it is customary for people to pay the merchants without being billed by the merchant, but if the merchant customarily collects his debts, there is no problem following local custom.
2. (Ravina) My locale is one where the merchants collect.
3. Abaye, when purchasing an item from partners, would give half the money to each (rather than all the money to one) and call them to reckon his bill, to be above the suspicion (on the part of the second) that he had not paid.
(c) Answer (R. Yochanan): If I were to walk four Amos without Torah and Tefilin (leading people to treat these lightly).
(d) Answer (Yitzhok D'Vei R. Yanai): One whose reputation causes embarrassment to his friends.
(e) Answer (R. Nachman b. Yitzhok): One whose friends must add to his name, "May HaShem forgive him..."
(f) Answer (Abaye): As the Beraisa describes the fulfillment of Kidush HaShem (people praising the gentle honest manner of those who study Torah) and its opposite (decrying the absence of these good traits in one who studies Torah).
(a) Teshuvah causes healing in the world (proof text).
(b) Question (R. Chama b.R. Chanina): One Pasuk indicates that Teshuvah causes the sinner to be viewed, retroactively, as only a wild child (not a sinner) while another Pasuk sees Teshuvah as healing that which was ill?
(c) Answer: Teshuvah out of love brings retroactive revision, while Teshuvah out of fear only heals from then on.
(d) Question (R. Yehudah): One Pasuk calls to the penitent as a son; the other calls to him as a servant?
(e) Answer: Teshuvah is pleasant when it is out of love or fear; while it will come about through affliction when it is forced upon Yisrael by the Master, Hashem.
(f) (R. Levi) Teshuvah reaches Hashem's Throne (proof text).

(g) (R. Yochanan) Teshuvah is so great that it (so to speak) overrides a Lo Sa'aseh in the Torah (the Lav of taking back one's divorced wife after marriage to another man, as indicated in the proof text).
(h) (R. Yonasan) Teshuvah brings the redemption (proof text).
(i) (Resh Lakish) Teshuvah causes Zedonos to be Shegagos (text).
1. Question: But Resh Lakish has taught that Zedonos become Zechuyos (proof text)!?
2. Answer: One speaks of Teshuvah MiYira'ah (they become Shegagos) and one speaks MiAhavah (become Zechuyos).
(j) (R. Shmuel b. Nachmani) Teshuvah lengthens one's years (proof text).
(k) (R. Yitzhok) Compare the ways of Man with those of Hashem.
1. Someone who sins against his fellow must wonder if the other will be appeased at all, and if so, at what cost.
2. One who transgresses the Will of HaShem need only approach Him with words (which will be credited as if he brought the finest Korban), and he will not only be received, but appreciated!
(l) (R. Meir in the Beraisa) Teshuvah on an individual brings atonement for the entire world (proof text).
(a) Question: What constitutes a Ba'al Teshuvah?
(b) Answer (R. Yehudah): One who avoids transgressing the same sin on another two occasions (e.g. with the same woman, during the same period of his life, in the same location).
(c) Question (R. Yehudah, citing Rav): One Pasuk praises the one who conceals his sin, and another does the opposite!?
(d) Answer (Rav): One should confess (and suffer embarrassment) from public Aveiros, but should not publicize private ones.
(e) Answer (R. Zutra b. Tuvyah citing R. Nachman): One should openly confess his sins against his fellow, but conceal those against HaShem.
(f) (R. Yosi b. Yehudah) Hashem forgives the same sin performed (by Klal Yisrael as well as by an individual) three times, but not four (two proof texts are needed to make the point by both the Klal and the Yachid).
(a) (Tana Kama) Aveiros which one confessed one Yom Kipur should not be confessed on the next, (unless the Aveirah was repeated) for doing so is like returning to the filth which he left behind (proof text).
(b) (R. Eliezer b. Yakov) One should keep one's sins before himself always (proof text).
1. Question: How will R. Eliezer explain the Tana Kama's proof text?
2. Answer: He learns from there Rav Huna's slogan - that once a person sins twice, it begins to *appear* to him as if the sin was permitted.
(c) (R. Yehudah b. Bava) One must specify the Aveirah when confessing (proof text).
(d) (R. Akiva) It is unnecessary to specify.
1. Question: How will R. Akiva understand the proof text from Moshe (confessing the sin of the People)?
2. Answer: He learns R. Yanai's teaching, that Moshe attempted to reduce the People's guilt.
(e) Our faithful leaders, Moshe Rabeinu and Dovid HaMelech differed on their desire to have their transgression mentioned.
1. Dovid HaMelech asked Hashem to *hide* his sin.
2. Moshe asked Hashem to *publicize* his.
3. As in the Mashal cited, Moshe wanted all to know the difference between the sin which prevented him from entering Eretz Yisrael and that which prevented Yisrael from entering (Meraglim).
(f) It is proper to publicize the identity of Chanafim (as in the proof text, to prevent the Chilul HaShem which results from People learning from the actions of these evildoers posing as Tzadikim and also questioning the punishment which comes to these people).
(g) The Teshuvah of total Resha'im delays their punishment even if it has already been sealed.
(h) The tranquil life of Resha'im is an obstacle (that impedes the world's progress), because it affords them time to devise their evil plans.
(i) Authority buries its incumbents.
(j) One leaves the world as he came into it (were that a person could leave it as free of sin).
(k) Before going out to judge, Rav and Rava used to say 'Of one's own freewill one goes to one's death (referring to the heavy responsibility of judging), even though one gains nothing in the process, were that he could return home (blameless) as he left.'
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