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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Yoma 74

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.


(a) Question: But we *do* find the word Asur used regarding a Chiyuv Kares!?
1. The Beraisa teaches that the Chiyuv Kares only applies to eating and drinking, not to the other afflictions.
2. Still, the term Asur is used for *all* the Inuyim.
(b) Answer: The term Asur applies to Chatzi Shiur, even as it is true that eating a full shiur would incur Kares.
(c) Alternate Answer: The term Asur is used since it applies to the other Inuyim.
(d) This is supported by the citation from the "Sha'ar Sifrei d'vei Rav" that the word Shabason is the license given to the Chachamim to add other Inuyim onto eating and drinking (the same way that Shabason is used to add other Melachos onto the 39 on Shabbos), and they are called *Isurim*.
2) CHATZI SHIUR (cont'd)
(a) R. Yochanan holds that Chatzi Shiur is an Isur Torah while Resh Lakish holds it is an Isur D'Rabanan.
(b) R. Yochanan holds that things which may aggregate must be viewed, from the outset, as the Isur.
(c) Resh Lakish holds that the Torah specifically prohibited Achilah (and less than a Shiur is not called Achilah).
(d) Question (R. Yochanan of Resh Lakish): The Beraisa (searching for the Isur of eating Chelev Koy as well as Chatzi Shiur finds the word "Kol") indicates that a tiny amount *is* an Isur Torah!?
(e) Answer: The word Kol is an Asmachta which the Rabanan use.
1. This seems likely since, if it were an actual Isur Torah, it would be prohibiting Koy.
2. It is not reasonable that the word Kol would come to prohibit a Safek (since it is only a doubt for *us*)!
(f) Question: That is not an indication, since that Tana could hold that Koy is a separate creature, necessitating a special word to prohibit its Chelev.

1. This is supported by the statement of R. Idi b. Avin in Kerisus, where Kol in the Beraisa comes to include Koy.
2. Again, there, the Pasuk could not be including a Safek!
(a) The Beraisa teaches that the Inuy is only through passive, not active affliction (Shev V'Al Ta'aseh).
(b) Question: Perhaps if he finds himself in the sun he should not move into the shade (or the opposite)!?
(c) Answer: The Inuy is comparable to Isur Melachah, where we do not distinguish within the same activity (an act is either a Melachah or it is not, just as sitting in the sun is either an Inuy or it is not).
(d) The Beraisa further teaches that Inuy is like Melachah on Yom Kipur.
1. Just as Melachah is prohibited elsewhere (as by Shabbos), so, too, Inuy is Chayav elsewhere (as by eating Pigul and Nosar).
2. We are not to think, however, that only the Kares foods are prohibited on Yom Kipur.
3. The Pasuk is understood to prohibit other foods (Tevel, Neveilah, Chulin, Terumah, Kodoshim) to be eaten on Yom Kipur, all from the inclusive word Te'anu.
4. If one would argue with the implications of Te'anu, another support may be brought to include all foods from the reference to Inuy which causes loss of Nefesh (eating and drinking).
5. What is the need for the "if one would argue" support?
6. Answer: Perhaps one would feel that Te'anu refers to Arayos, the Torah thus speaks of Inuy which causes loss of Nefesh, meaning eating and drinking.
(e) The Tana D'Vei R. Yishmael links the Inuy of Yom Kipur with the Inuy to which HaShem subjected the People in the Midbar, both being based on hunger.
1. Question: Learn from Lavan's use of the word Ta'aneh that it refers to abstention from cohabitation?
2. Answer: It is more reasonable to link general distress and not to personal distress.
3. Question: Link it to the general distress in Mitzrayim which, we have learned, was Perishus Derech Eretz!?
4. Answer: Rather, we link to deprivation by Divine decree (Yom Kipur and the Man in the Midbar) and not to deprivation by human decree.
(a) R. Ami and R. Asi argue over what the deprivation involved.
(b) One said it was the lack of Pas BeSalo.
(c) One said it was the inability to see (differentiate) the food.
1. R. Yosef reported this as the source that a blind person does not feel satisfied.
2. Abaye further taught that food should be eaten when it is light.
3. R. Zeira supported this from the Pasuk Tov Mar'eh Einayim...
4. Resh Lakish extended this to the pleasure of seeing one's wife.
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