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Yoma 32

YOMA 32-35 - anonymously sponsored towards a REFU'AH SHELEMAH to Shmuel Yakov ben Ayala Hinda, Ilana Golda bas Chana and Klarees Marcia bas Mammie


QUESTION: When the Torah (Vayikra, ch. 16) delineates the services which the Kohen Gadol is to perform on Yom Kipur, the verse informs us (Vayikra 16:23) that Aharon is to return to the Kodesh ha'Kodashim to remove the incense shovel (Kaf u'Machteh), before it describes the sacrifices that Aharon is to offer on Yom Kipur. The Gemara tells us that although all of the other verses describing the services of Yom Kipur are in the correct order, this verse is out of order. Aharon is to first bring the Musaf offering and the afternoon Tamid, and only *afterwards* is he to don linen garments once again and return to the Kodesh ha'Kodashim to remove the Kaf u'Machteh. The change in the order is based on a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai which says that five Tevilos and ten Kidushin must be done by the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur. Only by placing the Avodah of this verse (the removal of the Kaf u'Machteh) out of order will we arrive at five Tevilos and ten Kidushin.

Why did the Torah not write the verse in the proper sequence?

ANSWER: The VILNA GA'ON explains as follows. The Midrash (Vayikra Raba 21:6) says that Hashem told Moshe that Aharon is not to be excluded from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, but he may enter whenever he wishes. When he does so, however, he must perform the services just as they are done on Yom Kipur. Although no other Kohen Gadol is permitted to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim at any time other than Yom Kipur, Aharon was permitted to enter any day of the year, provided that he perform the Avodah as it is done on Yom Kipur. (This is in contrast to the words of Rashi, Vayikra 16:3, 32.)

The Vilna Ga'on explains that if Aharon entered on other days of the year, he would withdraw the incense shovel from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim immediately prior to performing the afternoon Tamid. In other words, the Parshah is not discussing the specific Avodah of Yom Kipur, but rather it is discussing the Avodah that is to be performed *any time* that Aharon enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim! "This is how *Aharon* shall enter the Sanctuary" (Vayikra 16:3) -- any day of the year. (This might also explain why the Torah makes no mention of the Musaf offerings of Yom Kipur in this Parshah; those offerings were done only on Yom Kipur and not on any day that Aharon entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.) Therefore, the Torah lists the removal of the Kaf u'Machteh immediately after the Avodah of the Ketores and the sprinklings of Dam in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and Heichal. The verse is out of sequence only insofar as the services of *Yom Kipur* are concerned -- on that day, the Kohen Gadol must remove the Kaf u'Machteh at a later point, after bringing the ram offerings. (KOL ELIYAHU, #83. A similar idea is proposed by the Netziv in HA'AMEK DAVAR to Vayikra 16:2, 23, 34.)

The logic of this scheme is clear. The Gemara tells us that on Yom Kipur, it was the Divine Will that the Kaf u'Machteh remain in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim until later for a specific reason: the Kohen Gadol had to perform five Tevilos on Yom Kipur, each accompanying a change of clothes. If the Kohen Gadol only donned linen clothes (the clothes required for walking into the Kodesh ha'Kodashim) once, he would change clothes only three times (gold- linen-gold) and would miss two Tevilos. In order to perform an extra two changes of clothes, he is told to don the linen clothes again later in the day and then change back again to gold, for a total of five changes of clothes (and five Tevilos). This requirement, though, was apparently unique to Yom Kipur. The Tevilos were not required due to the Kohen Gadol's entry into the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, but to arouse Hashem's mercy to atone for the Jewish people on the Day of Atonement ("Lifnei Hashem Titharu..."; "Mikveh Yisrael Hashem, Mah Mikvah Metaher..." -- Mishnah, Yoma 85b). Therefore, if Aharon were to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim during the rest of the year, there was no need for him to leave the incense inside any longer than the time it took to offer the incense and sprinkle the bloods that were to be sprinkled.

Why was Aharon given the special privilege of entering the Kodesh ha'Kodashim? The MESHECH CHACHMAH (Vayikra 16:3) offers an insight based on the words of the SFORNO. The Sforno (Vayikra 24:3) explains that while the Jewish people were in the Midbar, only the *Kohen Gadol* was allowed to perform the services of lighting the Menorah and offering the incense. The reason for this, the Sforno contends, was because the holiness that the Jewish people experienced in the years during which they wandered through the desert can be compared to the holiness of Yom Kipur. The sanctity of Yom Kipur stems from the fact that on that day, Hashem "appears in a cloud upon the Kapores (cover of the Aron ha'Kodesh)." Similarly, while the Jews were wandering through the desert, "Hashem's Presence rested upon the Mishkan by day, and there was fire therein by night" (Shemos 40:38). Just like all the services of Yom Kipur must be done by the Kohen Gadol himself (Yoma 32b), so, too, the lighting of the Menorah and the incense offering performed in the Mishkan while the Jewish people were in the desert had to be done by Aharon, the Kohen Gadol.

(Even during that period, however, Aharon's sons were allowed to participate in services that were performed in the courtyard of the Mishkan, such as offering private sacrifices, probably since they were not part of the obligations of the *Mishkan*, but were brought for the benefit of those who offered them. Such non-integral Avodos did not require a Kohen Gadol even on Yom Kipur; see Insights to 22:1.)

This is why Aharon was permitted to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim any day of the year, the Meshech Chachmah suggests. As long as the Cloud of the Divine Presence rested on the Mishkan, it was as if it were Yom Kipur with all its holiness all year long. Thus, on any given day of the year Aharon experienced the same sanctity that any other Kohen Gadol experienced only on Yom Kippur itself!


QUESTION: In the Beraisa, Rebbi learns from the words "u'Pashat... v'Rachatz," "v'Rachatz... v'Lavash" (Vayikra 16:23,24) that before and after each changing of clothes, the Kohen Gadol must do Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim. Even though the word "v'Rachatz" normally refers to Tevilah and not to Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim, here it refers to Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim to teach that just like Kidush must be done in a sanctified area, b'Makom Kadosh, so, too, the Kohen Gadol's Tevilah must be done b'Makom Kadosh.

RASHI asks (DH Mah Kidush) that we find that the first of the five Tevilos of the Kohen Gadol is performed in a non-sanctified area. According to Rebbi's way of learning the verse, the first Tevilah should also be done in a sanctified area! Why is it not done b'Makom Kadosh?

Rashi answers that the first Tevilah is not d'Oraisa, since it is not done between changes of clothes of Bigdei *Kodesh*, but after changing from non- Kodesh clothes to clothes that were Kodesh. Rashi seems to imply that the Gemara here is following the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah (30a), that the Tevilah done before entering the Azarah is d'Rabanan (because of "Serach Tevilah"; see also Rashi 32a, DH Mah Makom).

How can Rashi say that the first Tevilah is not d'Oraisa? We learned (32a) that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches that there must be five Tevilos on Yom Kipur (and because of that, the removal of the Kaf u'Machteh must be done at a different point in the Avodah than the order mentioned in the Torah)! Even if all year long the Tevilah upon entering the Azarah is d'Rabanan, on Yom Kipur it is certainly d'Oraisa! (TOSFOS REBBI AKIVA EIGER on Mishnayos)


(a) REBBI AKIVA EIGER gives an answer based on his understanding of the TOSFOS YESHANIM (32a, DH Gemiri). He says that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai did *not* mention the number of Tevilos. It only said that the Kaf u'Machteh must be removed from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim after bringing the ram offerings. The number of Tevilos (the four that are d'Oraisa) is derived as a *consequence* of that order of the Avodah. The Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai did not directly address how many Tevilos were to be done, and thus indeed it is possible only four Tevilos are d'Oraisa.

This answer, however, is difficult to understand, because the Gemara's wording clearly implies that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai taught the number of Tevilos, and that number was five.

(b) Rashi does not mean that the first of the five Tevilos of Yom Kipur is d'Rabanan. Certainly it is d'Oraisa as taught by the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai. When Rashi says that the first Tevilah is not d'Oraisa, he means that it is not derived from the verse ("u'Pashat... v'Rachatz...") like the other four Tevilos, for the verse only discusses the Tevilos done between changes of clothing of Bigdei Kodesh. Rather, it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.

Even though the first Tevilah is required mid'Oraisa, the verse that teaches that the Tevilos are like Kidush is only addressing those Tevilos mentioned in the verse. The first Tevilah, though, does not need to be done b'Makom Kadosh, since it is not included in the verse. (That is, the comparison that the verse teaches between Tevilah and Kidush does not apply to a Tevilah that is learned from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai.)

(c) TOSFOS (30a, DH u'Mah) argues with Rashi and says that even the first Tevilah -- when the Kohen Gadol changes from Bigdei Chol to Bigdei Kodesh -- is required mid'Oraisa. The reason why that Tevilah may be done in a non- sanctified area is because it is logical that before the Kohen becomes "Niskadesh" by wearing the Bigdei Kodesh, there is no need from him to do Tevilah in a Makom Kadosh. The verse is not referring to that sort of Tevilah. The verse is referring only to the Tevilos which he does after he has already begun to wear the Bigdei Kodesh; those Tevilos must be b'Makom Kadesh.

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