The Gemara adds that this Tana must agree with the opinion of Rebbi
Yehudah, who maintains that there was no separate Payis done to select who
would do the Avodah of the Machteh (bringing the coals from the outer
Mizbe'ach to the inner Mizbe'ach).
Why does the Beraisa that says that sometimes 17 Kohanim were selected by
the Payis have to be in accordance with the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah?
Perhaps the seventeenth Kohen is selected to bring in the Machteh and not to
carry the Evarim to the Mizbe'ach, in which case the Beraisa could agree
with Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov (and argue with Rebbi Yehudah)!
(a) RASHI explains that the Beraisa is counting all of the Kohanim chosen through the Payis to do an Avodah specifically related to the *Korban
Tamid*. The Machteh was not an Avodah related to the Korban Tamid (rather,
it was done for the Ketores). Only if an Avodah has something to do with the
Korban Tamid is it counted, even though it is included in a separate Payis.
(In this case, the first 16 Kohanim are selected with the first Payis, while
bringing the Evarim from the Kevesh to the Mizbe'ach is selected with the
fourth Payis.) If it has nothing to do with the Tamid (such as the Machteh),
then it is not counted in the Beraisa's enumeration of Koahnim. Thus, the
Beraisa that says that 17 Kohanim were selected cannot be in accordance with
Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov (who holds that no Payis was done to select an added
Kohen to bring up the Evarim).
The Rishonim reject this explanation because whether or not the Beraisa
holds like Rebbi Yehudah is irrelevant here. Even if the Beraisa disagrees
with Rebbi Yehudah and holds that an extra Kohen was selected by the Payis
to bring in the Machteh, that Avodah cannot be included in the count because
it has nothing to do with the Korban Tamid. (Rashi answers this point by
saying that when the Gemara mentions that the Beraisa is in accordance with
Rebbi Yehudah, it is saying so only incidentally -- that is, it so happens
that Rebbi Yehudah is the Tana who argues with Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, as
the Gemara says at the top of this Daf.)
(b) The other Rishonim write that the proper Girsa of the Gemara is the
original Girsa, before Rashi emended it. In that Girsa, the Gemara says that
the Beraisa is not in agreement with Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, *nor* is it in
agreement with Rebbi Yehudah, because if the Beraisa holds like Rebbi
Yehudah, there would only be 16 Kohanim selected, and not 17. Why is that?
TOSFOS (DH ha'Hi) explains that the Beraisa which mentions 17 is not
discussing the Kohanim chosen just for the Tamid. Rather, it is discussing
the Kohanim chosen by *all* of the Payesos for *all* of the Avodos, and it
is not referring to a special day (such as the Yom Tov of Sukos which occurs
on Shabbos), but it is referring to a normal day of the week. The number of
Kohanim selected on a normal day to perform all of the Avodos comes to 17.
That is, 13 Kohanim perform the Avodos of the Tamid, and 4 others perform
the Avodos of the Terumas ha'Deshen, Ma'aleh Evarim l'Mizbe'ach, the
Ketores, and the Machteh.
According to Rebbi Yehudah, though, the Avodah of the Machteh cannot be
included in the count, because Rebbi Yehudah says (25b) that there is no
Payis for the Machteh (but rather the Kohen who won the Payis of the Ketores
would tell the Kohen next to him to take the Machteh).
However, what difference does it make if the Machteh was not chosen directly
by a Payis but indirectly though the Payis of the Ketores? The Avodah of the
Machteh should still be counted, because we find that the Kohanim who
perform Dishun, Hatavah, and bring the Evarim of the Tamid to the Kevesh are
included in the count even though they are only selected indirectly through
one actual Payis (that is, the Kohanim who were standing next to the single
Kohen on whom the Payis fell would be selected for these jobs)!
Tosfos answers that the selection for the Avodah of the Machteh did not work
the same way as it did for these jobs. The Kohen standing next to the winner
of the Payis of the Ketores was *not* automatically chosen to bring the
Machteh. Rather, the winner of the Ketores could either take the Machteh
himself, or he could appoint any Kohen of his choice to take the Machteh.
Thus, according to Rebbi Yehudah there was no Payis at all for the Machteh.
The only way to get 17 Kohanim selected by the Payis was to include the
Kohen who brings the Machteh, which is not like Rebbi Yehudah
(c) RABEINU CHANANEL also says that the Girsa of the Gemara is that the
Beraisa is *not* in agreement with Rebbi Yehudah. According to Rebbi
Yehudah, the maximum number of Kohanim selected by the Payis would be 16,
and not 17. Rabeinu Chananel explains that the Beraisa is counting only
those Kohanim who were selected by the *second* Payis, regardless of whether
or not the specific Avodah is related to the Korban Tamid. According to
Rebbi Yehudah, though, the Machteh was chosen (indirectly) during the
*third* Payis, and therefore the ones chosen by the second Payis totaled at
most 16 (on Sukos which occurs on Shabbos) according to him. The Tana of
this Beraisa holds that the seventeenth was the Machteh, which was also
chosen during the second Payis. Since this Tana includes the Machteh in the
second Payis, instead of the third, in which a Kohen was chosen to offer the
Ketores, it is clear that he argues with Rebbi Yehudah.
Why, though, does this Tana hold that the Kohen who carried the Machteh was
not chosen together with the one who offered Ketores on the coals brought by
the Machteh? Logically, the two should be chosen together! Rabeinu Chananel
answers that this Tana is of the opinion that the Avodah of he Machteh did
*not* make the Kohen who performed it wealthy and thus there was no reason
to limit it to Kohanim who had never done it before. (See Insights to Yoma
25b.) Therefore it was included in the second Payis, in which all Kohanim
participated, and not in the third, which was limited to "new" Kohanim.
The Tana of the Beraisa is also not in agreement with Rebbi Eliezer ben
Yakov. Since Rebbi Eliezer holds that there was no Payis for bringing the
Evarim onto the Mizbe'ach, the fourth Payis must have been done for the
Machteh, as the Gemara says at the beginning of this Daf, and if so the
Machteh was still not included in the second Payis, which is the only one
that the Beraisa here is discussing.
(That is, according to Rabeinu Chananel there are three opinions as to when
the Kohen was chosen to carry the Machteh: (a) Rebbi Yehudah maintains that
he was chosen during the third Payis, along with the Kohen who offered the
Ketores. Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov maintains that a fourth Payis was done for
choosing the one to bring the Machteh. This Tana holds that the Machteh was
selected during the second Payis.)