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Yoma 78

YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will long be remembered.

1) [line 1] MIFTAN HA'BAYIS - the threshold of the Ulam (the Entrance Hall of the Beis ha'Mikdash)

2) [line 29] "BA'YOM HA'HU YIHEYEH MAKOR NIFTACH L'VEIS DAVID UL'YOSHVEI YERUSHALAYIM L'CHATAS UL'NIDAH" - "On that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Yerushalayim for cleansing and for sprinkling." (Zecharyah 13:1) - The word for "sprinkling" is the same as the word for the Tum'ah of Nidah.

3) [line 11] URKUMA D'MAYA - a pool of water (RASHI to Megilah 28b)
4) [line 14] HAGRONIYA - a Babylonian town, the home of several scholars
5) [line 14] ASU L'FIRKA - came to the Derashah of the Reish Galusa
6) [line 15] L'AFUKEI L'RAVINA MI'DA'ATEI D'REISH GALUSA - to make sure that the Reish Galusa did not harbor any ill feelings towards Ravina

7) [line 16] KA'IV LI KAR'A'I - my leg was hurting me
8) [line 17] L'MEISAM MESANEI - to put on shoes
9) [line 17] GABA D'CHAR'A HAVAH - the pain was on the top of my foot, and it was impossible to wear shoes

10) [line 20] TINA - mud
11) [line 21] METAFACHAS - which exudes liquid
12) [line 21] TOFE'ACH AL MENAS L'HATFI'ACH - moist to the extent that it makes anything that touches it also moist

13) [line 22] L'HITZTANEN B'FEIROS - to cool oneself with fruits
14) [line 22] MITZTANEN B'KARA - cooled himself with gourds
15) [line 22] MITZTANEN B'YENUKA - cooled himself with a child
16) [line 23] PACHARA - earthenware
17) [line 24] D'MISHCHAL SHACHIL - (O.F. trestrest) [earthenware utensils] exude liquids [which is prohibited because of Rechitzah]

18) [line 25] MIZDARIV - [even a half-filled silver utensil is also prohibited because it] slips out of the hand [and spills on the person]

19) [line 25] USHPIZACHNIN - host, innkeeper
20) [line 26] RABANAN D'KEISARI - the Rabbis of Caesaria
21) [line 27] BAR ARYA - son of the "lion", the great Torah scholar (The Girsa in the Oxford manuscript, the Rif and the Rosh, is Bar Orya -- one who has learned much Torah.)

22) [line 28] MITPACHAS - a kerchief or towel

23) [line 36] L'HATIR BECHOROS
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no blemish, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum (a blemish), it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a blemish, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Assur be'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Assur be'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

24) [line 38] BEI NESI'AH - the House of the Nasi
25) [line 38] L'HISGADER - to be distinguished, to raise themselves above everyone else
26) [line 40] V'AMAD B'MA'ALAH MI'ZEKENO SHEL ZEH - and he stood before the grandfather of this Nasi

27) [line 43] LO DANO VE'LO ME'IDO - may not judge the case or testify in the matter


28) [line 1] SHA'AM - (O.F. paveil) a kind of rush (a marsh or water-side plant with a slender, tapering, pith-filled stem)

29) [line 8] B'D'HITNI - with [a sandal made of] calamus, reeds (a type of Sha'am)
30) [line 9] B'D'HUTZEI - with [a sandal made of] palm leaves
31) [line 9] DIVLEI - with [a sandal made of] grass stems
32) [line 11] HA'KITEI'A - an amputee (of the foot)

33a) [line 11] KAV - a wooden leg
b) [line 12] V'REBBI YOSI OSER - The wooden foot of the amputee (Kav ha'Kite'a) was not used for walking on, or for leaning on. Rather, the amputee walked with a stick, or with a prosthesis attached to his knee, and the wooden foot was worn at the end of the foot (TOSFOS Shabbos 65b DH ha'Kite'a, see Insights to Shabbos 66:1). Only occasionally would the amputee rest the wooden foot on the floor and lean on it (RASHI Shabbos 66a DH Teme'ah Midras). The argument between Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yosi revolves around whether or not we can consider footgear worn only by a limited few to be a "shoe," and permit it to be worn in Reshus ha'Rabim. (RASHI here DH v'Rebbi Yosi; TOSFOS Yevamos 103a DH ha'Kite'a) Alternatively, their argument is whether or not we are afraid that the wooden foot will fall off in Reshus ha'Rabim and will be carried 4 Amos. (Rava's opinion here)

34) [line 14] KETITIN - pieces of soft cloth; pads

35) [line 19] TAMEI (TUM'AS MIDRAS)
(a) A Zav (see Background to Shabbos 83:2a), Zavah (see Background to Shabbos 83:2b), Nidah (see Background to Shabbos 82:30a) or Yoledes, can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav, Zavah, etc.) An object under a Zav, etc. becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras (or a Zav, etc. themselves), along with the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time, get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.

36) [line 22] DILMA MISHTAMIT - perhaps it will fall off
37) [line 26] INSHEI AVDU LEI - adults did it for him (put on his shoes), and they transgressed

38) [line 30] TA'AMA D'MISUSA - a taste of death
39) [line 31] LISAYEM MESANEI V'LIGNEI - he should put on his shoes and go to sleep
40) [line 32] D'LAV REVISAIHU - which is not the normal manner of conduct involved in the child's development

41) [line 34] AMRAH LI EM - my "mother" told me (Abaye was an orphan and he called his nursemaid "Em")

42) [line 35] MISHCHAH - oil (for anointing)
43) [line 35] GADEL PURSA - after he grows a little
44) [line 36] BEI'ASA B'CHUSCHA - to eat an egg in Kutach, a dip which is prepared by cooking whey with stale bread and salt

45) [line 36] TEVUREI MANEI - breaking utensils
46) [line 37] MANEI GEZIZEI D'FACHARA - cracked earthenware utensils
47) [line 42] "MELECH B'YAFYO TECHEZENAH EINECHA..." - "Your eyes will behold the king in his splendor..." (Yeshayahu 33:17)

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