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Previous dafYoma 73
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
1) [line 9] MISHUM EIVAH - in order to prevent strife
2) [line 10] MA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'EIN MORIDIN
When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not
lower its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.
3) [line 14] PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH
(a) The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by
a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did
not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the
same sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit
transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)
(b) The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is
applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the
Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the
Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered
on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not
sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12).
Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim.
(According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the
meat are Metamei Begadim.)
4) [line 14] (PAR HA'BA AL KOL HA'MITZVOS) - this term also refers to the
Par Kohen Mashi'ach; one of the two terms should be erased (RASHI, HAGAHOS
5) [line 15] ASIRIS HA'EIFAH (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)
The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an
Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in
olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls
were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely
burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12). The Chavitin had to be brought from
the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not have to actually offer them on
6) [line 16] LO PORE'A V'LO POREM (PERI'AH/PERIMAH)
A mourner must let his hair grow (Peri'ah) and make a tear (Perimah) of at
least a Tefach in the upper part of his clothes as is learned from the
verse in Vayikra (10:6), where Aharon and his sons were instructed not to
perform these Mitzvos. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 8:1)
7) [line 16] POREM HU MIL'MATAH - he tears the bottom of his clothes
8) [line 18] MAKRIV ONEN (ANINUS - The Halachic status of a mourner
immediately after a close relative's death)
(a) A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his
seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e.
father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife). Chazal (Zevachim
101a) learn the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas
ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos that
apply to an Onen is that a Kohen who is an Onen is prohibited from doing
the Avodah (divine service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen
Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may
not eat Kodshim, Terumah and Ma'aser Sheni.
(b) For a further discussion of Aninus and the difference between Aninus
mid'Oraisa and Aninus mid'Rabanan, see Background to Yoma 13:5.
9a) [line 19] NOTEL CHELEK B'ROSH - he has first choice to take whatever
part of the sacrifices that he chooses to eat
b) [line 19] MAKRIV CHELEK BA'ROSH - he has first choice to offer whatever
part of the sacrifices that he chooses
10) [line 20] TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV (TUMAS MIKDAS V'KODASHAV, and its
It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash or eat Kodshim if he
touched an Av ha'Tumah.
(a) If he knew that he was Tamei before and after the transgression, but
forgot at the time he transgressed, he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored.
This Korban varies based on the wealth of the penitent. If he is wealthy,
he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he
brings two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If
he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine
flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(b) If a person knowingly enters the Mikdash or eats Kodshim while Tamei,
he is liable to Kares and lashes (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3,
(c) The Gemara (Horiyos 9b) learns from the verse in Bamidbar (19:20) that
the Kohen Gadol is exempt from the punishments for Tum'as Mikdash
11) [line 21] MERUBAH BEGADIM
(a) A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of
the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate
his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shivas Yamim..." (RAMBAM
Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)
(b) The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3.
Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6.
Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2.
Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).
(d) The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was
anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah, the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for
anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim and the kings of
the Davidic dynasty.
(e) Before the destruction of the first Beis Ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu
ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II
35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-
26) and the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) were also hidden together
with the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with
which to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the years of the second Beis
Ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash
are called Merubah Begadim because they were consecrated solely by wearing
the Bigdei Kehunah for seven days.
12) [line 22] MASHU'ACH SHE'AVAR - A Kohen Gadol who had been appointed as
a temporary replacement for the incumbent Kohen Gadol during the period
that he could not do the Avodah
13a) [line 26] BED'CHAVASEI - a Kohen Gadol of equal rank, the Mashu'ach
b) [line 26] BED'ZUTAR MINEI - a Kohen Gadol of lower rank, the Mashu'ach
14) [line 28] REBBI CHIYA BAR ABA AMARAH - Rebbi Chiya Bar Aba said it
(that the Mashu'ach Milchamah wears the same eight vestments as the Kohen
Gadol) in the name of Rebbi Yochanan
15) [line 30] MISHUM YEKARA D'VEI KEISAR - because of the honor of the
household of the Ceasar, to whom Rebbi Avahu was close (they turned away
their faces and did not tell him explicitly that Rebbi Yochanan did not say
16) [line 30] NEIMRU LEI MEIMAR - let them say to him explicitly
17) [line 31] NISH'AL ITMAR - the statement that the Meshu'ach Milchamah
wears the vestments of the Kohen Gadol was said regarding the times that he
is asked by the king for the counsel of the Urim v'Tumim
18) [line 33] VEHA'NISH'AL PANAV KELAPEI SHECHINAH - (a) looking down at
the Urim v'Tumim while the person asking faces him (RASHI); (b) facing the
Aron while the person asking stands behind him (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei
19) [line 36] V'SHA'AL LO - (a) he asks such that only the Kohen hears
(RASHI according to MAHARSHA and RASHASH, RABBEINU ELYAKIM) (b) he asks
such that only he himself hears (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 10:11,
DEVAR SHEMUEL cited by MENAHCHEM MESHIV NEFESH)
20) [line 39] "HA'YASGIRUNI ..." - "Will the leaders of Ke'ilah deliver me
into his (King Shaul's) hand? Will Shaul come down ... and HaSh-m said, 'he
will come down.'" (Shmuel I 23:11)
21a) [line 9] SHE'ME'IRIN ES DIVREIHEN - they clarify their words
b) [line 9] SHE'MASHLIMIN ES DIVREIHEN - they fulfill their words
22) [line 10] SHE'LO BICHANU IM LENATZE'ACH IM LEHINATZE'ACH - they did not
ask if they would be victorious or not
23) [line 11] HISKIMU - agreed [with the attempt of the tribes to vanquish
the tribe of Binyamin]
24) [line 14] BOLTOS - the letters of the answer would stick out in their
places (in the order of the answer -- MAHARSHA)
25) [line 14] MITZTARFOS - the letters would come together to form the
words and sentences of the answer
26) [line 19] SIYU'EI HAVAH MESA'YEI BAHADAIHU - [the Kohen Gadol] would
assist them (the Urim v'Tumim) [in the process of receiving an answer,
through his power of Ru'ach ha'Kodesh]
*27*) [line 21] ZEH MESHU'ACH MILCHAMAH - that is, this verse means to
allow anybody who is needed by the Tzibur, such as a Meshu'ach Milchamah to
ask of the Urim v'Tumim (as the Mishnah writes; see Rambam Klei Mikdash 10:
*****PEREK #8 YOM HA'KIPURIM*****
28) [line 26] KOSEVES HA'GASAH - a large date
29) [line 27] MELO LUGMAV - the amount of liquids that can fill two cheeks
30) [line 30] CHATZI SHI'UR ASUR MIN HA'TORAH
(a) Even though one only receives Malkos (lashes) if he ate an entire
k'Zayis of a forbidden food, less than a k'Zayis is forbidden by the Torah
as well, according to Rebbi Yochanan. This is the Halachic ruling.
(b) This Halachah applies not only to prohibited foods, but rather to every
Isur that has a specified Shi'ur. If a person transgresses the Isur with an
amount less than this Shi'ur, even though he does not incur Malkos, he has
still transgressed an Isur mid'Oraisa. For example, if a person writes one
letter on Shabbos or cooks an amount of food less than a Grogeres on
Shabbos, he has transgressed an Isur Torah.
31) [line 34] KORBAN SHEVU'AH
(a) A person can make an oath by using a name of or a reference to Hash-m
and swearing to do something or not. This applies to actions that are not
Mitzvos. An oath cannot take effect to enforce an act for which one is
already bound by oath. A person is considered bound by the Mitzvos as if he
took an oath to keep them (Mushba v'Omed me'Har Sinai). Therefore, he
cannot create a Shevu'ah to override or enforce them.
(b) If he unintentionally transgresses his oath, he is required to bring a
Korban Shevu'ah. The Korban Shevu'ah is a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban
varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a
female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two
doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot
even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a
Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c) If one knowingly transgresses his oath, he gets Malkos. However, if he
swears *to do* something and doesn't do it, he does not get Malkos (RAMBAM
Hilchos Shavu'os 4:20)
32) [line 36] MUSHBA V'OMED ME'HAR SINAI HU - a person is considered bound
by the Mitzvos as if he took an oath to keep them
33) [line 37] KOLEL (EIN ISUR CHAL AL ISUR)
(a) An object that is already prohibited by one Isur Torah cannot become
prohibited by a second one (Ein Isur Chal Al Isur). However, there are a
number of possible exceptions to this rule which are debated by the Tana'im
1. Isur b'Vas Achas - Two Isurim may take effect at the same instant to
prohibit the same object.
(b) According to Rebbi Shimon, an object that is already prohibited can
*never* become prohibited by another Isur, even if the second Isur is
Kolel, Mosif or Chamur.
2. Isur Kollel - The second Isur may take effect if it includes objects
that the first Isur did not (e.g. Yom ha'Kipurim prohibits not only the
eating of Neveilos, but Kosher foods as well).
3. Isur Mosif - The second Isur may take effect if it adds a new dimension
of Isur to the first (e.g. it prohibits the object to people who were not
included in the first Isur, or it makes the object Asur b'Hana'ah and not
just Asur to be eaten).
4. Isur Chamur (according to Rebbi Yehudah) - A more stringent Isur can
take effect on an object that is already prohibited by a less stringent
Isur (e.g. the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is more stringent than the
prohibition of non-Kosher animals, since it applied to Benei Yakov when
they were still permitted to eat non-Kosher animals).