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Yoma 55

1) [line 1] K'MENAGDANA - (a) like the flogger who administers each blow below the previous one (RASHI); (b) like a flogger who administers the blows with an upraised hand (the first drop of blood was sprinkled with an upraised hand) and lifts the whip for each subsequent blow with the palm of his hand pointing downward (the seven drops of blood were cast from a position in which the palm of his hand was pointing downward, i.e. backhanded underhand; all drops fell on the same place) (ARUCH Erech Neged II, in the name of REBBI MOSHE HA'DARSHAN MI'NARVONA)

2) [line 3] METZADED YADO LA'MATAH - he turns the *back* of his hand downward (RASHI)

3) [line 8] MAH LIFNEI D'LAV AL - just like the word "Lifnei" (before; in front) does not mean [that he sprinkles the blood] literally on [the Kapores]
b) [line 9] AF AL D'LAV AL - so, too, the word "Al" (on) does not mean [that he sprinkles the blood] literally on [the Kapores]

4) [line 42] SHE'LO YIT'EH - (a) so that he [has time to pay attention to the count of the sprinklings L'Matah and] will not make a mistake (RASHI); (b) so that he not make a mistake [by counting the first sprinkling l'Ma'alah as the first of the seven sprinklings l'Matah] (RITVA)

5) [line 46] SHOFAROS - boxes in the shape of a Shofar-horn (wide at the base and thin at the top) for depositing money. Their opening was narrow so that it would be impossible to reach in and steal its contents

6) [line 46] KINEI CHOVAH
(a) If a Zav (see Background to Pesachim 90:7) emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban (Kinei Zavin) after he becomes Tahor in order to enable him to eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b) When a woman becomes Tehorah after being a Yoledes (a woman who gave birth) or a Zavah (see Background to Pesachim 112:42), she must bring a Korban (Kinei Yoldos or Kinei Zavos) to complete her purification process and to enable her to eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(c) The Korban brought by a Zav or a Zavah is two turtledoves or two common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest."
(d) The Korban brought by a Yoledes includes a male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings a Ken, i.e. 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(e) An Olas ha'Of and a Chatas ha'Of were offered on the Mizbe'ach differently (e.g. the blood of the Olas ha'Of was pressed out above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that divided the Mizbe'ach in half, whereas the blood of the Chatas ha'Of was sprinkled below the Chut ha'Sikra). If one was offered in the manner prescribed for the other, it became Pasul. Therefore, the Kohen had to know which one he was offering.


7) [line 7] TIKLIN CHADETIN (Shekalim)
(a) In the Beis ha'Mikdash, many public sacrifices were offered (for example the daily Temidim, the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals etc.). In order to finance these Korbanos, one half a Shekel was collected from every Jew, both those living in Eretz Yisrael and in the Golah, once a year.
(b) The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c) The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not *less* than the value of half a Shekel.
(d) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).

8) [line 7] TIKLIN CHADETIN - "new Shekalim" that were given for the Korbanos of the coming year

9) [line 7] TIKLIN ATIKIN - "old Shekalim" which were given by someone who owed Shekalim from the previous year

10) [line 8] KININ (The birds bought with the money from the Shofar of Kinin)
Rebbi Yehudah rules that only Torim (turtledoves), sacrificed as Olos Nedavah, were bought with the money in the Shofar of Kinin. The Rabanan rule that this money was used to buy Kinei Chovah (see above, entry #6), whether Torim or Benei Yonah (common doves). (See RIVEVAN to Shekalim 18a)

11) [line 8] GOZALEI OLAH (The birds bought with the money from the Shofar of Gozlei Olah)
Rebbi Yehudah rules that only Benei Yonah, sacrificed as Olos Nedavah, were bought with the money in the Shofar of Gozlei Olah. The Rabanan also rule that this money was used to buy birds to be sacrificed as Olos Nedavah, but they could be Torim or Benei Yonah. (See RIVEVAN to Shekalim 18a)

12) [line 9] LA'KAPORES - (a) for golden Kelei Shares (utensils use in the divine service), that are called Keforei Zahav (Ezra 1:10, Divrei ha'Yamim I 28:17); (b) to make gold leaf for the walls of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, which was called the Beis ha'Kapores (RIVA, cited by TOSFOS YESHANIM DH v'Zahav)

13) [line 9] NEDAVAH
Optional Korbanos are called Nedavos. The contents of one of the Shofaros (boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash were used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" (communal Olos) to be sacrificed when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use. (Rashi Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" [Kayitz = cut figs, a common dessert food] to the Mizbe'ach.) These Korbanos were Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos).

14) [line 11] ESHTAKAD - the previous year

15) [line 14] CHATAS SHE'MESU BE'ALEHA (A Korban Chatas, the owner of which has died) (a) There are five Chata'os that are put to death by locking them up without food until they die:

1. The offspring of a Chatas
2. The Temurah (see below, entry #10) of a Chatas
3. A Chatas, the owner of which has died
4. A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins
5. A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)
(b) If a person sets aside money towards the purchase of a Korban Chatas and then he dies, the money must be disposed of (just as the Chatas of a man who died must be left to die).

16) [line 18] V'NIVROR ARBA'AH ZUZEI - why do we not choose four Zuzim (the cost of a Korban Chatas)
b) [line 18] V'NISHDEI B'MAYA - and let us throw it into a river

(a) In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah doesn't work). Bereirah means making one's action contingent retroactively on future events. Examples of this are: selling an object on the condition that it rains tomorrow; buying or selling *today* an object that will be selected tomorrow. "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains the logic of this rule by saying, "It is not proper for something to take effect, when there remains a doubt on *what* it will take effect." (See Insights to Chulin 15:2.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.
(b) When the action is contingent on a *past* event, there is no question that the action works -- even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. Example: If a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, in two different directions, and stipulates "if my Rebbi is *presently* staying in a village towards the East, I would like the Eastern Eruv to work, if not, I would like the Western Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv may not know where his Rebbi is, but when he finds out, the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated.
(c) We find dozens of instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy or sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays or does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept *in the future*, the sale or divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah -- see Insights.
(d) Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that regarding biblical questions (mid'Oraisa), we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumrah), but in regards to Rabbinical questions (mid'Rabanan), we rely on Bereirah.

18) [line 20] KUSIM
The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of gentiles.

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