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Yoma 50

YOMA 49-50 (6 & 7 Adar) were dedicated by Harav Avi Feldman & family in memory of his father, the Tzadik Harav Yisrael Azriel ben Harav Chaim (Feldman) of Milwaukee (Yahrzeit: 6 Adar)

*1*) [line 2] SHE'YOTZI ES KULO - that is, the verse means that he must take out whatever remains from what *once was* a live cow. (TOSFOS)

2) [line 8] ATU BI'KERANEHA ME'AYEIL LEI - does he pull it in by the horns?

3) [line 12] CHATAS SHE'MESU BE'ALEHA (A Korban Chatas, the owner of which has died)
There are five Chata'os that are put to death by locking them up without food until they die:

  1. The offspring of a Chatas
  2. The Temurah (see below, entry #10) of a Chatas
  3. A Chatas, the owner of which has died
  4. A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins
  5. A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)
4) [line 16] CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour, made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not have to actually offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as a Chatas on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a goat as a Chatas for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

The Se'irei Avodas Kochavim are the goats brought as Korbenos Chatas by the Sanhedrin when the Jewish people commit idolatry b'Shogeg based on the ruling of the Sanhedrin (Bamidbar 15:22-26, see previous entry).

7) [line 21] CHAGIGAH
Every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14).

8) [line 53] CHATAS HA'SHUTFIN - a Korban Chatas that is brought for more than one person (that is, all of the Kohanim are considered owners of this Korban, since they are all atoned through it.)

9) [line 54] D'LO MAISU KOHANIM PAR B'HORA'AH - that is, Kohanim are not considered to be a separate Shevet unto themselves, and they do not bring a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur -- see above, #5.


10) [line 2] TEMURAH
(a) The Torah states, "Do not try to transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh." (Vayikra 27:10)
(b) The second animal, or the Temurah, is a valid Korban, and if it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).
(c) Even if a person makes a Temurah unintentionally, he receives Malkos (lashes). Some explain that this is only true if he intended to create one type of Temurah, knowing that it is forbidden, and accidentally designated a different type of Temurah (e.g. a Temuras Shelamim instead of a Temuras Olah). Others maintain that even if he thought that it is permitted to make a Temurah, he nevertheless receives Malkos (see Chart to Temurah 17a).
(d) The Chinuch explains that the reason for this prohibition is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH 351,352).

11) [line 9] CHOMESH (A fifth)
When a person dedicates an item to Hekdesh, if he redeems it himself he has to add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). For example, if the object is worth 50 Sela'im, he has to redeem it for 62.5. If another person redeems it from Hekdesh, he does not have to add a Chomesh.

12) [line 11] TOVAS HANA'AH SHELO - he has the right to give the Terumah to the Kohen of his choice

13a) [line 13] BI'KEVI'USA MISKAPREI - (lit. do they achieve atonement in a "fixed manner?") do they have a fixed share in the Par of the Kohen Gadol, through which they achieve atonement?
b) [line 14] B'KUFYA MISKAPREI - (lit. do they achieve atonement in a "floating manner?") is their atonement only subordinate to and attained through the atonement of the Kohen Gadol?

14) [line 20] LIGAZEZ V'LEI'AVED
It is forbidden to shear or work with an animal that is Kodesh, as is learned from Devarim 15:19. Even if the animal develops a Mum (blemish that invalidates it), this prohibition remains, as Chazal learn in Bechoros 15a, from the verse in Devarim 12:15.

15) [line 31] SHEM TEMURAH - Temurah animals in general

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