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Yoma 22

*****PEREK #2 BA'RISHONAH*****

Every morning a Kohen would remove some of the ashes from the consumed sacrifices and place them to the southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) from the ramp and 10 Amos from the start of the ramp, as the Pasuk says in Vayikra 6:1-4.

2) [line 5] HA'MEMUNAH - (a) the Segan Kohen Gadol (RASHI); (b) the appointed Kohen who was in charge of the lottery (TOSFOS Yoma 15b, Menachos 100a)

3) [line 5] HATZBI'U - put out one or two fingers
4) [line 6] AGUDAL - the thumb
5) [line 11] PAYIS - a lottery
6) [line 27] SHANI MIGNA MI'MEIKAM - going to sleep is different from waking up; many Kohanim would rather stay up late than wake up early

7) [line 29] SIDUR MA'ARACHAH - arranging the wood-piles on the Mizbe'ach, as described in Tamid Perek 2

8) [line 30] SHNEI GEZIREI ETZIM - arranging on the large Ma'arachah two blocks of wood that measure one square Amah and are as thick as the block that is used to level a heaping Se'ah (Zevachim 62b). These were placed on top of the wood-pile to increase the fire (RAMBAM Temidin u'Musafin 6:1)

9) [line 38] ARBA AMOS D'AR'A, LO - [when the Mishnah describes the first Kohen to enter the *four Amos* of the Mizbe'ach] it does not mean the four Amos on the ground that are in front of the ramp

10) [line 39] KAMAISA, NAMI LO - it also does not mean the bottom four Amos of the ramp itself

11) [line 40] D'LO MESAIMA MILSA - lit. the area is not distinguishable, i.e. this does not define a specific location

12) [line 40] D'GABEI MIZBE'ACH TENAN - the Mishnah is referring to the top four Amos of the ramp that are next to the Mizbe'ach


(a) The Mizbach ha'Olah of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. The Yesod (bottom platform) was 32 Amos long, 32 Amos wide, and 1 Amah high. The second platform was 30 Amos long, 30 Amos wide, and 5 Amos high. The third platform (which the Rambam calls "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah"), upon which the sacrifices were offered, was 28 Amos long, 28 Amos wide, and 3 Amos high. A Keren (horn), which was a one-Amah cube, was poured on each corner of the upper platform. (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8)
(b) The Yesod protruded outward one Amah further than the middle section on two complete sides, the northern and the western. It protruded on the eastern and southern sides only for the length of one Amah from the northern and western corners. The blood of many of the Korbanos was cast on the sides of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, and it ran down to the Yesod (Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). The remainder of the blood of some Korbanos was poured directly onto the Yesod, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.)
(c) The Kohanim would walk upon the part of the middle platform that jutted out past the upper platform. This was called the "Sovev", because it encircled the Mizbe'ach.
(d) The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)
(e) The ramp was 32 Amos long and 16 Amos wide, and was separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It was indented on the bottom, at the face of the Mizbe'ach, such that it covered the Sovev.

14) [line 4] V'NIMNINHU L'DIDHU - let them count the Kohanim themselves
15) [line 6] "VA'YIFKEDEIM B'VAZEK ..." - (Shmuel I 11:8) - at this point the Gemara understands this to mean "And he (Shaul) counted the people with potsherds."

16) [line 8] LISHNA D'MIVZAK - in the sense of being broken (a fragment of pottery)
16) [line 8] SHEMA D'MASA - the name of a city
17) [line 13] "LO YIMAD [V'LO YISAFER]" - "who will not be measured and who will not be counted." (Hoshea 2:1)

*18*) [line 16] "K'CHOL HA'YAM", U'CHESIV "ASHER LO YIMAD V'LO YISAFER" - (a) that is, the second verse implies that the Bnei Yisrael have no number, they are so numerous, RASHI; (b) alternatively, from the second verse it is implied that it is *prohibited* to count the Jewish People, RABEINU CHANANEL

19) [line 31] "SOV ATAH U'FGA BA'KOHANIM" - "You, [Do'eg,] circle around and kill the Kohanim." (Shmuel I 22:18)

20a) [line 31] KAMAH LO CHALI V'LO MARGISH - how greatly assured, without need to be sick from grief or worry
b) [line 32] GAVRA D'MAREI SAYA'EI - is a person whose Master is his help, support

21) [line 32] SHA'UL B'ACHAS V'ALSAH LO - Shaul committed one transgression and it counted for him (to cause his death and to terminate his kingship)

22a) [line 34] URIYAH - Uriyah ha'Chiti was guilty of treason (Shabbos 56a, baed upon Shmuel II 11:11). As a result, David instructed his general Yo'av to see to it that Uriyah be sent to the front lines of the battlefield to be killed by the Amonites. The Gemara (ibid.) claims that David should have tried him in front of the Sanhedrin.
b) [line 34] HASATAH - Towards the end of the reign of David ha'Melech, many of the people sinned in private, and the king was unable to root out this evil. As a punishment, HaSh-m caused David to err tragically and order a headcount of Bnei Yisrael. David realized his sin and was given a choice of three punishments that would atone for the sins. He chose to fall into the hands of HaSh-m, and as a result, a plague set in and seventy thousand people died (Shmuel II 24:1-15, and RADAK ibid.).

23) [line 34] IPAR'U MINEI - They (in Heaven) took retribution from him
24) [line 35] YELED AMNON TAMAR V'AVSHALOM - The four children through which David was punished as a result of this sin: 1. The death of the first son of Bas Sheva (Shmuel II 12:15-23); 2. The death of Amnon (Shmuel II 13:28-29); 3. The rape of Tamar (Shmuel II 13:1-20); 4. The death of Avshalom (Shmuel II 18:14-15)

25) [line 36] LAI! IPAR'U MI'GUFEI - it is not so! Indeed, They (in Heaven) punished him on his body (for the incident with Bas Sheva)

26) [line 38] "YASHUVU LI YERE'ECHA, V'YOD'EI EDOSECHA" - "May they return to me, those who fear You and who know Your testimonies" (Tehilim 119:79) - This verse is referring to the Sanhedrin.

27) [line 38] "HASHIVAH LI SESON YISH'ECHA; V'RU'ACH NEDIVAH SISMECHENI" - "Restore to me the joy of Your salvation, and with a generous spirit sustain me." (Tehilim 51:14) - This verse is referring to the Shechinah, and it appears in the Psalm that begins, "When Nasan the Prophet came to him (David), because he had relations with Bas Sheva." (Tehilim 51:2)

28) [line 38] KIBEL DAVID LASHON HA'RA - David ha'Melech was forced to flee from Yerushalayim because of the rebellion of his son, Avshalom. Tziva, the slave of the house of Shaul ha'Melech, claimed that the last remaining descendent of Shaul, Mefivoshes, was also disloyal to David (Shmuel II 16:1- 4). As a result, David took away half of the inheritance of Shaul from Mefivoshes and gave it to Tziva. After the defeat of the rebellion of Avshalom, the verses describe the meeting between David and Mefivoshes: "And Mefivoshes the son of Shaul came down to meet the king, and he had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from the day the king departed until the day he came back in peace." (Shmuel II 19:25) - The two possibilities for his behavior were: (a) he was loyal to King David, mourning the fact that the king was temporarily deposed; (b) he was disloyal to King David, and did not beautify himself at the king's return. He claimed that Tziva'a lied about his intentions.

29) [line 41] RECHAV'AM V'YERAV'AM - Rechav'am, the son of Shlomo ha'Melech, took the counsel of his young advisors and continued the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted (Melachim I 12:14). As a result, the people rebelled under the leadership of Yerav'am ben Nevat of the tribe of Efrayim, and 10 tribe seceded from the kingdom. Our Gemara relates that this incident also served as a punishment for David ha'Melech.

30) [line 43] ACHVI'U LEI - they (in Heaven) showed him
31) [line 43] SEYUTA - frightening angels
32) [line 43] NA'ANEISI LACHEM - I beg your pardon (I have humbled myself before you)
33) [line 47] TAZU'ACH DA'ATO - he will become haughty

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