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Yoma 21

YOMA 21 - Dedicated to the memory of Moshe Simcha ben Dovid Z"L Rubner by his parents, Dovid and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva.

1) [line 1] RIDYA - The "Plower," an angel that looks like a calf and calls to the heavens and to the depths to give forth water (Ta'anis 25b)

2) [line 5] AD SHE'YESHANEH - until the rooster crows a second time (a person should not travel)

3a) [line 8] TZEFUFIN - crowded together (to the extent that the feet of some of them were raised off the floor)
b) [line 8] REVACHIM - with lots of space (four Amos) between them

4) [line 15] HIPILAH - miscarried

5) [line 19] OMER
(a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16).
(b) In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12.
(c) The Korban ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year, and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.

6) [line 19] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a) The Shtei ha'Lechem is an offering of two loaves of bread (that are Chametz) which is brought on Shavuos. It is baked from the newly grown wheat (Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim in the Mikdash at the time. They are eaten on the day of Shavuos and the night afterwards, until midnight (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).
(b) Afterwards, all new wheat is permitted to be used for Menahcos.

7) [line 19] LECHEM HA'PANIM
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah) which are arranged in two stacks (Sedarim), six loaves to each stack, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed. (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b) A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of LevonahA (frankincense) in a Bazach (bowl) is placed alongside each stack. Only the Levonah is offered on the Mizbe'ach.

8) [line 25] ATZEI HA'MA'ARACHAH - the wood that was on the Mizbe'ach
9) [line 27] KALNEVO - a place in Bavel, named for Nevo, one of their idols (see Yeshayahu 46:1)

10) [line 28] MUR'AH V'NOTZAH - the crop and feathers of the Olas ha'Of
11) [line 28] DISHUN MIZBE'ACH HA'PENIMI - the ashes collected from the Mizbe'ach of Ketores, which was in the Heichal

12) [line 29] DISHUN HA'MENORAH - the ashes collected from the Menorah
13) [line 33] EINO MIN HA'MIDAH - it did not take up any space
14) [line 34] NISEI D'VARAI - miracles that took place outside, in the Azarah, that everyone could see


(a) The Torah says that wooden utensils can become Tamei if they are touched by a person or object that is an Av ha'Tum'ah, of if they are under the same Ohel as a dead person (Vayikra 11:32, Bamidbar 31:20). However, since the Torah compares a wooden object that becomes Tamei to a sack ("Sak"), the wooden object must have certain qualities in common with a sack in order to become Tamei.
(b) Among these qualities are:

1. The object must have a receptacle, i.e. an area in which it can contain other objects, as opposed to a flat board.
2. It must not be large enough to hold 40 Se'ah, for if it is that large it cannot be transported when filled, as opposed to a sack, which is made to be transported either empty or full.
3. It must be an object that is sometimes transported, and not one that is always stationary. If it is left stationary, it is called a "Kli he'Asuy l'Nachas" and is not Mekabel Tum'ah.
16) [line 2] CHOTZETZ
(a) An object that covers a space of a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high, is considered to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is under an Ohel, its Tum'ah spreads out to fill the entire area under the Ohel. This is what is meant by the statement that an Ohel is *Mevi* Tum'ah (*spreads* Tum'ah under it).
(b) Tum'ah that is under an Ohel does not rise above the Ohel, because the Ohel stops the Tum'ah and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. This is what is meant by the statement that an Ohel is *Chotzetz* Mipnei ha'Tum'ah (*intervenes* between the Tum'ah and what is above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above the Ohel).
(c) However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects which are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects which are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that itself can be Mekabel Tum'ah, such as a wooden utensil (with a receptacle) that is not attached to the ground, is Mevi Tum'ah to what is beneath it, but it is not Chotzetz Mipnei ha'Tum'ah, (meaning that it does not prevent Tum'ah from affecting what is above it).

17) [line 12] "... U'FERACH LEVANON UMLAL." - "... and the flower of Levanon becomes destitute." (Nachum 1:4) - Levanon refers to the Beis ha'Mikdash (Yoma 39b, Rashi to Devarim 3:25)

18) [line 14] NISEI D'KEVI'EI - miracles that happen constantly in a fixed place
19) [line 16] REVUTZAH - crouching
20) [line 17] U'VARAH - and bright
21) [line 22] "... V'ERTZEH BO V'EKAVDA(H) AMAR HASH-M" - "I will be pleased with it and I will be honored, says HaSh-m." (Chagai 1:8) - The beginning to this verse relates HaSh-m's command to build the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

22) [line 25] SIYU'EI LO MESAYA - it did not help [to burn the sacrifices] (as opposed to the heavenly fire that existed during the time of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, which did not need the help of the Stei Gizrei Etzim to burn the sacrifices -- Rabeinu Chananel)

23) [line 27] ESH DOCHEH ESH - a fire that pushes away fire
24) [line 27] ESH OCHELES ESH - a fire that consumes fire
25) [line 29] "... V'ES HA'MAYIM ASHER BA'TE'ALAH LICHECHAH" - "and it licked up the water in the trench." (Melachim I 18:38)

26) [line 37] D'AZIL V'ASI K'DIKLEI - [it was straight and] it would sway like palm trees

27) [line 37] V'AVDUREI LO HAVAH MIVDAR - but it did not disperse (like smoke normally does)

28) [line 39] SHE'HEVI'U SHELISH - when they have grown to a third of their full size
29) [line 40] CHONTIN - are budding

30) [last line] HAI MARBEH DIDEI, V'HAI MARBEH DIDEI - the northern wind aids in the growth of wheat from which the Lechem ha'Panim is made. Similarly, the Golden Table is on the northern side of the Heichal. The southern wind aids in the growth of olives from which oil for the Menorah is made. Similarly, the Menorah is on the southern side of the Heichal.

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