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Yoma 6

(a) The Torah specifies that the belt that the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom ha'Kipurim was made of pure linen, while the belt he wore during the year was made of Kil'ayim (a mixture of linen and wool). However, the Torah does not specify what type of belt a Kohen Hedyot wore.
(b) The Tana'im and Amora'im argue as to what material was used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot (who wore the same type of belt all year). One opinion rules that a Kohen Hedyot wore a belt of pure linen, like the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom Kipur, while others rule that he wore a belt of Kil'ayim, like the Kohen Gadol wore during the rest of the year.
(c) According to Rashi here in Yoma, the opinion that holds that the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot's belts "were similar," holds that they were both of Kil'ayim; he is referring to the Kohen Gadol's belt during the rest of the year. According to Rashi in Chulin (138a), the opposite is true. The opinion that holds that the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot's belts "were similar," holds that they were both of linen, and is referring to the belt the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom Kipur.

2) [line 8] D'AKDIM - in immediate succession, Moshe dressed Aharon in the *three* items of clothing of all Kohanim (the Michnasayim, the Kutones and the Mitznefes) except for the Avnet, dressed his sons except for their Avnetim, put on Aharon's Avnet, put on the Avnetim of his sons and then dressed Aharon in the four vestments specific to the Kohen Gadol (see RITVA)

A person who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent. The objects he touches, as well as *Tachtono*, the objects underneath him, have the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah, as it states in Vayikra 15:24 (see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah *during the day* to complete his purification process.

4) [line 20] B'ACHAR ACHAR - lit. in the "after after" [period] - during the *third* time period after marital relations in which a woman who finds blood on a Bedikah cloth may become Temei'ah. The first time period is when she checks immediately after relations. "B'Chad Achar" (the next time period) is after she has time to get up and wash herself. After this amount of time, she enters the "b'Achar Achar" period until 24 hours have passed (RASHI). (RITVA, however, based upon the Gemara in Nidah 14b, writes that the "b'Chad Achar" time period is after she has time to pull out a Bedikah cloth from under her pillow and wipe herself.)

(a) By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, *after nightfall*, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b) The Gemara here discusses whether a man who has relations with a Nidah, and is therefore Tamei for seven days like a Nidah, must immerse *after* nightfall of the seventh day ("Bo'el Nidah k'Nidah") and remain a Tevul Yom until after nightfall after the *eighth* day, or whether he may immerse even *during* the seventh day and become Tahor at nightfall (He'erev Shemesh) after the seventh day ("Bo'el Nidah *Eino* k'Nidah").

6) [line 29] YOLEDES
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: (1) During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah. (2) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

7) [line 31] V'CHOL D'ASI ME'RIBUYA - and any Tamei that is an outgrowth of a Nidah (i.e. a Bo'el Nidah)


8) [line 3] MISHKAV U'MOSHAV
(a) A Zav and a Zavah, as well as a Nidah or Yoledes, can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav). An object (other than earthenware objects, or Klei Cheres) that is under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c) The Midras of a Bo'el Nidah, however, only becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah, and can only Metamei food and drinks.

9a) [line 5] ZAV
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(c) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Korbanos.

b) [line 5] ZAVAH
(a) The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must *watch* the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(a) When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks, making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen *confirms* the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b) The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg

(a) A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that has been immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches do not become Tamei. After the following nightfall, he or it becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah.
(b) Most people who are Tamei may immerse in a Mikvah to become a Tevul Yom either by day or by night. However, a Nidah and a Yoledes must immerse by night, after counting a full seven days (or fourteen days, for Yoledes Nekevah) and wait until the following nightfall to become completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. The Gemara here concludes that a person who has relations with a Nidah (Bo'el Nidah) may also immerse in a Mikvah during the day, on the seventh day after he becomes Tamei.
(c) If the person being Tovel was a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes or Metzora, he or she is called a Mechusar Kipurim. Such a person still retains a minimal amount of Tum'ah with regard to Kodesh; a Mechusar Kipurim is considered a Shelishi l'Tum'ah, and if he or she touches Kodesh the Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Only after they bring a Korban do they become completely Tahor, even with regard to Kodshim.

12) [line 10] TUM'AS HA'MES HUTRAH HI B'TZIBUR/ DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR (a) The Torah permits offering Korbenos Tzibur (communal sacrifices) b'Tum'ah. Therefore, Korbenos Temidim and the Musafim of Shabbos, Yom Tov and all other Korbanos and Menachos that are brought for the Tzibur, such as Minchas ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem, may be offered even if there is a need to offer them b'Tum'ah (as will be explained below).
(b) The Tana'im argue whether Tum'ah is *Hutrah* b'Tzibur or *Dechuyah* b'Tzibur (Pesachim 77a, Yuma 7b).

1. The Gemara in Yuma explains that according to all opinions, if certain Kohanim in the Mikdash are Teme'im and others are Tehorim, the Tehorim do the Avodah. However, if all of the Kohanim of the Beis Av (the group of Kohanim whose day it is to do the Avodah) are Teme'im, there is a dispute as to whether the Korbanos are offered b'Tum'ah. One opinion holds that the Torah entirely cancelled the prohibitions against Tum'ah with regard to Korbenos Tzibur ("Hutrah"); therefore the Kohanim who are Temei'im may perform the Avodah. Others rule that Kohanim from other Batei Avos who are Tehorim should be sought to do the Avodah, since only with reluctance did the Torah permit offering Korbenos Tzibur b'Tum'ah ("Dechuyah"). The prohibitions of Tum'ah are only pushed aside in the event of great necessity.
2. Another practical difference that arises from the argument whether Tum'ah is Hutrah or Dechuyah is that according to the opinion that Tum'ah is Dechuyah b'Tzibur, a Korban Tzibur in which the blood, flesh or Chelev became Tamei may only be offered *in conjunction with* the conciliatory effects of the Tzitz (see Background to Pesachim 77:7b). If the Tzitz is not Meratzeh for the Korban, the Korban may not be offered b'Tum'ah (Pesachim 77a).
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