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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yevamos 43

YEVAMOS 42 & 43 - sponsored by Hagaon Rav Yosef Pearlman of London, a living demonstration of love for and adoration of the Torah.


(a) The Mishnah in Keilim says that a Tamei flax-comb whose teeth are missing, retains its Tum'ah if *two* teeth remain, but is Tahor, if there is only *one* left.
Why is that?

(b) Why does each tooth that is pulled out, retain its Tum'ah?

(a) What is the Din of a Tamei wool-comb, if the middle tooth of each group of three teeth is missing?

(b) If one group of three remains intact, the comb remains Tamei.
When will this not be the case?

(c) In which case will the broken teeth remain Tamei if ...

  1. ... two teeth broke off together?
  2. ... even one single tooth broke off?
(d) How do we reconcile Rebbi Yochanan, who always rules like a S'tam Mishnah, with the tradition that this Mishnah is not Halachah, despite the fact that it is a S'tam Mishnah?
(a) Why can the reason that Rebbi Yochanan rejected this Mishnah not be because the Reisha says that a Tamei wool-comb with the middle tooth missing from each group of three is Tahor (implying that if *two* adjoining teeth remain intact, it is Tamei), whereas the Seifa says that only if a set of *three* teeth remain intact is it Tamei (according to Rashi's second explanation)?

(b) Nor did he reject it because, whereas in the Reisha, the Tana considers each tooth that breaks off a K'li even without fashioning it, in the Seifa, he requires fashioning, because, as Abaye explains, maybe the Reisha speaks when a bit of the handle broke off with it, and the Seifa speaks when it did not.
How does Rav Papa explain this discrepancy?

(c) So why *did* Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish reject the authenticity of this S'tam Mishnah?

(a) What did Rebbi Chiya bar Avin mean when he sent (a message) that a woman is permitted within three months?

(b) Ameimar too, permitted her to become betrothed on the ninetieth day (before three full months had expired).
How did Ameimar explain Rav and Shmuel, who both ruled that one needs to wait three months, besides the day on which her husband died the day of the betrothal?

(c) Then why did Rava confiscate the Se'udah that someone arranged when he 'betrothed' a woman on the ninetieth day after her husband's death?

(d) What is the Halachah?

(a) The Mishnah in Ta'anis forbids a haircut and washing clothes during the week in which Tish'ah be'Av falls.
Is there any Heter at all to do these things?

(b) 'Before this time', says the Beraisa, 'one diminishes one's business deals, building and planting'.
What does the Tana say about betrothal and marriage?

(c) Assuming that 'before this time' refers to before Tish'ah be'Av, what Kashya does Rav Chisda ask from here on Rebbi Yossi, who forbids the betrothal of a widow during the Sh'loshim?

(d) We answer that, as far as betrothal is concerned, when the Tana permits betrothal 'before this time' ('Kodem ... '), he means 'Kodem de'Kodem'. What does that mean?

(a) What Kal va'Chomer does Rava nevertheless ask (even on Kodem de'Kodem) from business, instead of from washing clothes?

(b) So how do we amend 'Kol ha'Nashim Yis'arsu Chutz min ha'Almanah' of Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah?

(c) We now contend that the Tana Kama forbids even an Arusah to become betrothed whereas Rebbi Yehudah permits the betrothal of a woman who was married and the marriage of one who was betrothed.
What does ...

  1. ... Rebbi Yossi hold with regard to Havchanah?
  2. ... Rebbi Yehudah hold with regard to the betrothal of a widow during the Sheloshim?
Answers to questions



(a) According to the second Lashon, we amend Rebbi Yossi's statement to 'Kol ha'Arusos Gerushos Yinas'u', and he does hold of Havchanah. Bearing in mind that in this Lashon, Rebbi Yossi is more strict than Rebbi Yehudah, in which point does he argue with him?

(b) Why does Rebbi Yossi differentiate between an Arusah marrying and a married woman becoming betrothed?

(c) How do we reconcile Rebbi Yossi here with a Beraisa where he says 'Kol ha'Nashim Yis'arsu ... '?

(d) And how do we then amend 've'Chulan Lo Yinas'u ad she'Yihyu Lahen Sheloshah Chodashim' in the Beraisa (implying that betrothal is permitted)? To whom does this refer?

(a) A man does not inherit his betrothed should she die.
Can *she* claim her Kesubah, should *he* die?

(b) Do the Dinim of Aninus and Aveilus, and the obligation of burial apply to an Arus and an Arusah, if the other dies?

(c) What problem does this create with the way we amended Rebbi Yossi to read 'Kol Arusos Gerushos Yinas'u'?

(d) As a result of this Kashya, we reinstate the original text as it stands in our Mishnah ('Kol ha'Nashim Yis'arsu Chutz min ha'Almanah').
How do we now answer our original Kashya on Rebbi Yossi (who forbids a woman who is mourning to become betrothed) from the Beraisa (which says 'Kodem ha'Z'man ha'Zeh ... *u'Me'arsin*')?

(a) The Tana Kama in the Beraisa forbids betrothal during the week of Tish'ah be'Av. 'Yesh Omrim' (Rebbi Nasan) is even more strict.
What does 'Yesh Omrim' say?

(b) Rav Ashi disagrees with those who just portrayed the Heter of betrothal during the week of Tish'ah be'Av as a Machlokes Tana'im.
How does he explain the Beraisa which forbids betrothal during the week of Tish'ah be'Av?

(c) Does this mean that when the Tana also forbids marriage, he means specifically marriage with a Se'udah (but permits marriage without one)?

(d) So how does Rav Ashi explain Rebbi Yossi? How can he forbid a widow to become betrothed, whilst conceding that betrothal during the week of Tish'ah be'Av is permitted?

(a) If four brothers die, does the oldest remaining brother have the right to perform Yibum with all of them, or can the other brothers demand that he performs one Yibum, leaving the other three for them?

(b) If a man dies, leaving two Yevamos, the Yibum or the Chalitzah of one of them exempts the other. If one of them is Pesulah li'Kehunah (for example, a divorcee), if the Yavam wants to perform Chalitzah, he must perform Chalitzah with the one who is Pasul.
Why is that?

(c) With which one does he perform Yibum?

Answers to questions

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