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Yevamos 122

YEVAMOS 122 (Siyum!) - The Siyum of Maseches Yevamos has been dedicated by Dr. Eli Turkel (of Raanana, Israel) to the memory of his uncle, Wolf Rosengarten (of Zurich, Switzerland) Ztz'l, at the completion of the Shivah for his passing. Reb Wolf Rosengarten was a person of "Sheleimus" in every way, in Torah, in Chessed (b'Gufo and b'Memono) and in Avodas Hashem. Klal Yisrael has lost a precious gem that cannot be replaced.



(a) When a Nochri bemoaned his Jewish travelling companion who had died on the way and whom he had buried - Aba Yudan Ish Tzaidan permitted his wife to remarry.

(b) It make not the slightest difference how many Jews the Nochri claims died and whom he buried - because the Gemara goes on to relate one episode where they permitted the wives of a whole group of people who had died and another, where they permitted the wives of sixty men who had dies, on the basis of the one Nochri testifying 'Masi'ach Lefi Tumo'.

(a) A woman is permitted to marry on the testimony of a witness who ...
1. ... saw the dead man by the light of a lamp or by the light of the moon.
2. ... only heard the voice of a Bas-Kol - a voice without actually seeing a person (the Tif'eres Yisrael suggests that it is an echo).
(b) In one episode cited in our Mishnah, they permitted a woman to remarry on the basis of a voice that they heard stating that so-and-so died, even though they found nobody there. In another episode that took place in Tzalmon - the Tana records a case where they actually heard the man himself stating that he had been bitten by a snake and that he was dying; there too, they permitted his wife to remarry.

(c) Rabah bar Shmuel informs us that Beis Shamai does not accept testimony that is based on a Bas Kol, whereas Beis Hillel does. The relevance of that information is - that, should one discover a Beraisa which invalidates testimony based on a Bas-Kol, the author can only be Beis Shamai.

(a) We know that the Bas Kol that they heard was not that of a demon (who do not always speak the truth - see Megilah 3a.) - because we saw a double-shadow, something which humans cast, but not demons (see Tosfos DH 'de'Chazi').

(b) And we know that demons do not cast a double-shadow, because so Yonasan the demon told Rebbi Chanina. Note: Presumably he believed the demon, because it is something that can be verified ('Milsa de'Avidi le'Iglu'i').

(c) Neither do we suspect that it may have been the woman's Tzarah (who is out to make her sin) that we heard - because, in cases of emergency (such as a woman who will otherwise remain an Agunah), we do not contend with the possibility of an unknown source being a Tzarah, unless we know for sure that it is.

(d) When Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael says 'be'Sha'as ha'Sakanah Kosvin ve'Nosnin af-al-Pi she'Ein Makirin' - he is referring to someone who fell into a deep pit and who cries out for anyone hears his voice to write a Get and give it to his wife, which we do (provided he identifies himself).

(a) The only person in Eretz Yisrael to permit a woman to remarry on the testimony of one witness - was Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava.

(b) Nechemyah Ish Beis D'li said to Rebbi Akiva that he had received a tradition from Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken that this was on fact, the Halachah.

(c) When Rebbi Akiva told Raban Gamliel about Nechemyah Ish Beis D'li's testimony, he happily exclaimed that they had found a Chaver to back up Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava's opinion.

(d) That reminded him about those who were murdered in Tel Arza - whose wives he then permitted to remarry through the testimony of one witness.

(a) Regarding Eid mi'Pi Eid - they even permitted testimony heard from a slave, a slave-girl and from a relative.

(b) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar quoting Rebbi Akiva made a 'Kal va'Chomer' - that if the five women who are not believed to permit a woman to remarry when they testify that her husband died, are nevertheless believed to bring her Get from overseas, the wife herself, who *is* believed to testify that her husband died, should certainly be believed to bring her Get.

(c) The problem with bringing a Get from overseas - is the fact that the Sh'li'ach is also requires to make a statement 'be'Fanai Nichtav ube'Fanai Nechtam'.

(d) When Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah explicitly discounts the testimony of a woman, as well as that of a slave or of relatives - it is before the custom to accept such testimony was established. Rebbi Akiva in the Beraisa, speaks afterwards.




(a) The Chachamim tried to prove that a woman is believed, from the episode of the B'nei Levi - who proceeded to Tzo'ar, the city of dates, after having left their sick colleague in an inn, in the charge of the lady inn-keeper. Upon their return, they asked her where their colleague was. She replied that he had died and she had buried him, and they permitted his wife to remarry on the basis of her testimony.

(b) Rebbi Akiva refuted that proof - on the grounds that they did not rely on her testimony, but on the Simanim that she produced (his staff and his satchel).

(c) When the Chachamim said 've'Lo Tehei Kohenes ke'Pundekis' - they meant to say that a good Jewish woman (a Kohenes or a Yisre'eilis) should not be worse than that inn-keeper, who was a Nochris.

(d) In that case, she must have been Masi'ach Lefi Tumo. Despite the fact that in our Mishnah, it seems to have been the B'nei Levi who brought up the subject, with the question 'Ayei Chavereinu' - they only did so after they saw her weeping (and that is considered 'Masi'ach Lefi Tumo').

(a) When Rebbi Tarfon asked that witness who came to testify about his friend, how he knew that he was dead - he replied that, travelling together, they were being chased by a band of robbers, when his friend cut off the branch of a olive-tree, and single-handedly, fought off the robbers.

(b) When he referred to him as 'Aryeh' - he asked him how he knew what his name was, since in his home town, they also referred to him as Yochanan b'Rebbi Yonasan, Aryeh de'mi'K'far Shichayah.

(c) In conclusion, the witness testified that Aryeh fell ill and died.

(d) In the above episode, Rebbi Tarfon accepted the witness' testimony without any query. Another Beraisa, however, citing the same incident, describes how Rebbi Tarfon cross-examined the witness - he asked him whether he had not said that his friend came from K'far Shichayah Aryeh (and not Aryeh from K'far Shichayah). Whether or not, a witness to permit a woman to remarry, requires cross-examination, is in fact, a Machlokes Tana'im, as we shall now see.

(a) The Tana Kama of a Beraisa holds that Eidus Ishah does not require cross-examination - Rebbi Tarfon and Rebbi Akiva say that it does.

(b) This dispute is based on a statement of Rebbi Chanina who learns from the Pasuk "Mishpat Echad Yihyeh Lachem" - that Dinei Mamonos, like Dinei Nefashos, require both D'rishah and Chakirah.


1. D'rishah is - the general questions that the Dayanim ask the witnesses to verify their testimony.
2. Chakirah - the seven questions that they would ask them to pinpoint the time and location of what they claim took place.
(d) The Chachamim negated the need for D'rishah and Chakirah in cases of money-matters - because otherwise, potential lenders, knowing that, before they will be able to reclaim their loans, the witnesses will be subjected to a cross-examination, will refuse to lend money.
9) Eidus Ishah might be considered ...
1. ... Dinei Mamonos in this regard - because it enables the woman to claim her Kesubah.
2. ... Dinei Nefashos - because it permits an Eishes Ish to remarry.
10) Rebbi Elazar Amar Rebbi Chanina learns from the Pasuk "ve'Chol Banayich Limudei Hashem, ve'Rav Sh'lom Banayich" - that Talmidei-Chachamim increase peace in the world.

*** Hadran Alach ha'Ishah Basra u'S'lika Lah Maseches Yevamos ***

On to Kesuvos


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