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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Yevamos 47

YEVAMOS 46-50 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.



(a) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "ve'Chi Yagur *Itcha* Ger" - that someone who claims that he is a Ger is not believed (see Tosfos DH 'be'Muchzak Lach'), and requires Hatafas Dam B'ris (taking a drop of blood in place of B'ris Milah).

(b) Rebbi Yehudah explains that "Itcha" ('be'Chol Makom she'Itcha') applies to Chutz la'Aretz, where a Ger does *not* need to bring any proof that he converted in Beis-Din; whereas from "ve'Chi Yagur ... *be'Artzechem"* we learn - that in Eretz Yisrael, he *does* (because he may really be a circumcised Arab, who is masquerading as a Jew because of the praiseworthiness of Eretz Yisrael.

(c) The Chachamim hold that - either way, he is obligated to prove that he converted properly.

(d) The Tana needs a Derashah to teach us that if the Ger brings witnesses, they are believed to say that he converted properly - because it speaks when they testify, not that they saw the conversion taking place, but that they heard from others that it had (testimony that is not normally acceptable - see Rosh Si'man 34).

(a) Although the Tana appears to learn two things from "Itcha" - in fact, one of them is not really from "Itcha", but from "ha'Ger ha'Gar *Itchem*".

(b) The Chachamim learn from "be'Artzechem" - that one may accept Geirim in Eretz Yisrael, in spite of the suspicion that they are only converting because Eretz Yisrael is a land flowing with milk and honey.

(c) This Derashah is needed even nowadays, when the B'rachah of 'milk and honey' does not apply - because of the Mitzvos of Leket, Shikchah, Pei'ah and Ma'aser Ani, a tremendous advantage for poor people.

(d) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan needed to rule that the Ger is obligated to bring a proof that he Toveled even in Eretz Yisrael, despite the fact that is the opinion of the Chachamim (and we have a principle 'Yachid ve'Rabim, Halachah ke'Rabim') - because the Pesukim fit better with Rebbi Yehudah's Derashos.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk "*u'Sh'fat'tem Tzedek Bein Ish u'Vein Achiv u'Vein Geiro" - that Geirus requires a Beis-Din.

(b) When that man came before Rebbi Yehudah claiming that he had converted without a Beis-Din, and that he had no witnesses (though it is unclear what difference it would have made if he had), but that he had sons - he told him that although he had the authority to invalidate himself, he did not have the authority to invalidate his sons.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk "Yakir" - that, as well as a father being believed to declare one of his sons the Bechor, he is also believed (should he be a Kohen), to declare any of his sons a Ben Gerushah or a Ben Chalutzah.

(d) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak explains that, in spite of this Derashah - Rebbi Yehudah did not believe the man vis-a-vis his sons - because, in his own words, he was a Nochri, so how could Beis-Din accept his testimony on his sons?

(a) The Chachamim say - that a Kohen who claims that his son's mother is a Gerushah or a Chalutzah is not believed.

(b) Ravina disagrees with Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (in 3d.). In his opinion, Rebbi Yehudah there believed the man with regard to his sons (conforming with his explanation of "Yakir") - and it was with regard to his grandsons that he did not believe him (since the Torah only gives a man the right to invalidate his sons, but not his grandsons [see following answer]).

(c) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan explained the Beraisa, which, quoting Rebbi Yehudah, says that a person is believed vis-a-vis his small son, but not vis-a-vis his big one, to mean - that a man is believed to invalidate (small) sons (i.e.) sons who do not themselves have sons, but not (big )sons (i.e.) who *do*.

(d) We rule like Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (that Rebbi Yehudah did not believe the father at all - because, in his own words, he was a Nochri), in spite of the second Beraisa, which seems to bear out Ravina - because the Beraisa is talking about a father regarding the Din of Yakir, and not about a Ger (as we initially thought).

(a) If a Nochri wants to convert nowadays - we ask him why he wants to convert, and does he not realize that Yisrael are downtrodden and lowly and that they are constantly suffering.

(b) When the convert replies 'Eini K'dai' - he means to say that he is not worthy to share in their troubles, but how he wishes that he would nevertheless be able to do so.

(c) Besides some of the less stringent Mitzvos and some of the more stringent ones - we warn him about Leket, Shikchah and Pei'ah.

(d) We mention eating Cheilev and breaking Shabbos - with regard to the punishments that he will be due to receive should he contravene them: Kareis for the former, S'kilah for the latter.

(a) We tell him ...
1. ... the reward for the Mitzvos (see Agados Maharsha)?
2. ... that Olam ha'Ba - is only made for the Tzadikim.
(b) We tell him that Yisrael can take neither too much good, nor too much punishment. The reason for the first part of this statement - is because too much good causes them to become proud, which in turn, causes them to sin (as the Torah writes in Eikev " ... and you will become proud and forget Hashem ... ").

(c) Apart from the few dissuading words (with which we open the proceedings), we make no other efforts to dissuade him into changing his mind.

(d) Once he finally undertakes to convert - we do not delay at all, but convert him immediately.




(a) They perform Tevilas Geirus - immediately after the Milah, because one does not delay a Mitzvah (unnecessarily).

(b) Whilst he is Toveling - the 'two' Talmidei-Chachamim who attend to the Tevilah teach him some of the less stringent Mitzvos and some of the more stringent ones, because it is the Tevilah that finalizes his Geirus, and that is when he ought to accept the yoke of Mitzvos (as he becomes a Jew).

(c) The Tevilas Geirus of a woman differs from that of a man - inasmuch as it is women who settle her in the water up to her neck, and the Talmidei-Chachamim stand outside and tell her some of the Mitzvos from there.

(a) A Ger, an Eved Meshuchrar and a Nidah (to permit her to her husband) - must Tovel in a Mikveh of forty Sa'ah of water.

(b) The Dinim of Chatzitzah - apply equally to all three of them.

(c) We might have thought that Chatzitzah may not apply to them - only to someone who actually Tovels in order to touch Taharos.

(d) Initially, we tell a Ger a cross-section of Mitzvos to try and dissuade him from converting. The reason for this is hinted in the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Nilvah ha'Ger Aleihem *ve'Nispechu* al Beis Yisrael" - from which we learn that Geirim are as problematic for Yisrael as the plague of Tzara'as (because they easily revert to their old practices and are a bad example for the rest of Yisrael (see also Tosfos DH 'Kashim').

(a) A Ben No'ach is sentenced to death for stealing - because of the principle 'Azharasan Zu Hi Misasan' (the Torah's warning spells death to a Nochri who contravenes any of his Mitzvos; he does not even require two witnesses and warning).

(b) We know that he does not have the option of returning the stolen article and avoiding the death-sentence - because the Mitzvah of "ve'Heishiv es ha'Gezeilah ... " was said to Yisrael and not to Nochrim.

(c) We inform them of the sin of Matnos Aniyim (Leket, Shikchah ... ), says Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan, because a Ben No'ach is killed even for less than a Shaveh-Perutah and does not have the option of returning the article - teaching us that Nochrim do not forego even the smallest amounts that one steals from them. Therefore it is necessary to teach the Ger to be more liberal with his money and to give the poor their dues.

(d) He cannot mean that if we do not teach him these Mitzvos, he may kill any poor man who enters his property to take Matnos Aniyim - because then he should have said 'We instruct them to allow the Aniyim to come and take Matnos Aniyim', rather that 'We inform them of the sin of Matnos Aniyim'.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "va'Teire Ki Mis'ametzes va'Techdal le'Daber Eilehah" - that, the moment the Ger has seriously decided to convert, we no longer try to dissuade him from doing so.

(b) For Rus to reply ...

1. ... "ba'Asher Teilchi Eilech" - Naomi must have told her about Techum Shabbos (see Agados Maharsha).
2. ... "ba'Asher Talini Alin" - ... about the Isur of Yichud.
3. ... "Ameich Ami" - ... that we have six hundred and thirteen Mitzvos.
4. ... "Elokayich Elokai" - ... that Avodah-Zarah is forbidden (even in partnership with serving Hashem, which is not forbidden to the B'nei No'ach [otherwise, what was she telling her new?]).
(c) Rus replied ...
1. ... ba'Asher Tamusi Amus" - when Naomi told her about the four Misos Beis-Din.
2. ... ve'Sham Ekaver" - when she told her that even among those deaths there were two levels, because those who are stoned and those who are burned are buried in one grave-yard, whilst those who are killed by the sword are buried in another graveyard together with those who are strangled.
(a) The Beraisa above taught us that if, after the Milah, strands that retard the Mitzvah of Milah remain, the Mitzvah must be re-done. According to the Mishnah in Shabbos, this refers to the row of flesh that covers the majority of the crown (the top part of the Milah) - which Rav Yirmiyah bar Aba Amar Rav explains to mean the majority of the height of the crown (from the widest part to the tip), even though it does not cover the majority of the circumference.

(b) The other area of Halachah that is cited in our Sugya as being affected by this deficiency - is that of Terumah, since a Kohen who is an Areil is prohibited to eat Terumah.

(c) We do not Tovel the Ger before the wound from his Milah has cured - because water is bad for the wound.

(d) The Beraisa said that *two* Talmidei-Chachamim stand by the Ger when he Tovels - which we amend to read 'three' (in order to reconcile it with Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan, who learned above that Geirus requires three).

(a) Once the Ger has Toveled, writes the Tana, he is a Jew in all respects. The Tana needs to tell us this, in case he betroths a Bas Yisrael - so that we should know that she is Mekudeshes (seeing as a Yisrael Mumar [apostate] is still a Yisrael), and requires a Get from him before she is permitted to marry anybody else.

(b) The Tana also states that a Ger and an Eved Meshuchrar have the same Din. The problem with explaining this to mean that both need to accept the yoke of Mitzvos is - the Beraisa which teaches that an Eved Meshuchrar does not require Kabalas Ol Mitzvos.

(c) An Eved Meshuchrar should not need to accept the yoke of Mitzvos when he goes free - because he was already Chayav to observe the Mitzvos as an Eved.

(a) We answer that the author of our Beraisa is the Rabbanan, and the author of the latter Beraisa, Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar. The Rabbanan say about an Eishes Yefas To'ar, who cries for her father and mother for a month - that should she accept to convert immediately, then he Tovels her (with Kabalas Mitzvos) and is permitted to take her immediately as a wife (see Mesores ha'Shas).

(b) According to Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, he may Tovel her as a Shifchah immediately, even against her will. He is then permitted to set her free and live with her immediately, seeing as even at the time of Shichrur, she does not require Kabalas Mitzvos.

(c) According to Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar - an Eved does *not* require Kabalas Mitzvos prior to Shichrur, according to the Rabbanan, he *does*.

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