POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Yevamos 117
YEVAMOS 116-119 - have been sponsored through the generous contribution of
Mr. Uri Wolfson and family
1) REGARDING WHAT IS SHE BELIEVED?
(a) Beis Hillel: We find that the children do not inherit based on her
2) WOMEN THAT ARE SUSPECTED OF LYING
(b) Beis Shamai: We can learn from the Kesuvah - he writes, 'If you will get
married to another, you will receive what is written'!
1. Beis Hillel retracted, and agreed to Beis Shamai.
(c) (Gemara - Rav Chisda): If she did Yibum, the Yavam inherits his brother
based on her testimony.
1. Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel expounded what is written in the Kesuvah - we
must expound what the Torah says!
(d) (Rav Nachman): If she comes to Beis Din and says, 'My husband died,
permit me to get married' - we permit her, and give her the Kesuvah;
i. "He will stand up on the name of his brother" - behold, he stood!
(e) If she says, 'Give me the Kesuvah' - we do not even permit her to get
1. This is because she intended to receive the Kesuvah.
(f) Question: If she says, 'My husband died, permit me to get married and
give me my Kesuvah' - what is the law?
1. Since she mentioned the Kesuvah - she intended for the Kesuvah (and we
don't permit her at all)?
(g) Question: If we say, a person tells everything to Beis Din - if she
says, 'My husband died, give me my Kesuvah and permit me to get married' -
what is the law?
2. Or - do we say, a person tells everything to Beis Din (and her primary
intent was to get married).
1. Here, she certainly intended for the Kesuvah!
2. Or - perhaps her primary intent was to get married, she just didn't know
for what she would be believed!
i. The question is unresolved.
(a) (Mishnah): All are believed to say that her husband died except for: her
mother-in-law; the daughter of her mother-in-law; her Tzarah; the wife of
her husband's brother; and her husband's daughter.
1. These women are believed to bring her Get, since the signatures prove
that it is valid.
(b) (Gemara) Question: Is the daughter of her father-in-law believed?
1. Why is Sarah, the daughter of Leah's mother-in-law, suspected to lie?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): All are believed, except for 5 women.
i. If because Sarah's mother hates Leah, so Sarah does, too - this does not
apply to the daughter of Leah's father-in-law.
ii. If Sarah hates Leah because she thinks, Leah stands to enjoy my mother's
money (Leah's husband, Sarah's sister, will inherit their mother) -
similarly, the daughter of Leah's father-in-law thinks, Leah will enjoy my
1. If the daughter of the father-in-law is not believed - there are 6 women!
(d) Rejection: If the reason is, she thinks that she will enjoy her mother's
money - the same applies to the father-in-law's daughter, so they are
considered 1 case.
(e) Contradiction (Beraisa): All are believed except for 7 women!
(f) Answer: That is as R. Yehudah.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Also, her father's wife and her daughter-in-law
are not believed;
(g) Question (Rav Acha Bar Avya): A woman who will become her mother-in-law
(i.e. after Yibum) - is she believed?
2. Chachamim: Since we taught, the daughter of her husband and her
mother-in-law - we already know these cases!
i. R. Yehudah holds, the mother-in-law hates the daughter-in-law because the
daughter-in-law stands to enjoy her money - but why should a daughter-in-law
hate her mother-in-law?
3. Question: If so - why does R. Yehudah say that also these 2 are not
ii. The daughter of her husband hates her father's wife, because she thinks,
she is enjoying my mother's money - but why should the father's wife hate
her husband's daughter?
4. Answer: Sarah hates her mother-in-law (Leah), because Leah tells her son
(Sarah's husband) everything Sarah does;
i. Likewise, Sarah hates her husband's daughter (Leah) because Leah reveals
all Sarah's doings to Leah's father (Sarah's husband).
5. Chachamim hold, "As water reflects, so is the heart of man to man" (i.e.
hate is reciprocal).
6. R. Yehudah says, the verse teaches that success in Torah is according to
1. Does she anticipate that the husband will die, and she will fall to
Yibum, and she already hates her?
(h) Answer (Mishnah): A woman says, my husband died, and then my
father-in-law - she may get married and receives her Kesuvah, but her
mother-in-law may not get married.
3) CONTRADICTORY WITNESSES
1. (Even though she is no longer her mother-in-law - after Yibum, she will
again be her mother-in-law).
(i) Rejection: This case is different -she has already felt pain from being
her daughter-in-law. (But in a regular case, she would not hate her yet.)
2. Suggestion: Her mother-in-law is forbidden, because we suspect that
neither man died -
she lied, to trick her mother-in-law into remarrying, and becoming forbidden
to her father-in-law.
(a) (Mishnah): 1 witness said that he died, and she got married; 1 witness
came and said that he did not die - she does not leave (her husband);
(b) 1 witness said that he died, 2 say that he did not die - even if she got
married, she must leave;
(c) 2 witnesses say that he died, 1 says that he did not die - even if she
did not yet marry, she may marry.
(d) (Gemara): We infer (in the 1st case) - because she already married, she
does not leave - but had she not yet married, she may not marry.
(e) Question: But Ula taught, wherever the Torah believed 1 witness, he is
(f) Answer: The Mishnah means - 1 witness said that he died, and we
permitted her to get married; 1 witness came and said that he did not die -
she remains permitted.
(g) (Mishnah): 1 witness said that he died ...
(h) Objection: This is obvious, 1 witness is not believed against 2!
(i) Answer #1: It is a case of invalid witnesses, as R. Nechemyah.
1. (Beraisa - R. Nechemyah): Wherever the Torah believed 1 witness, we go
after the majority; 2 women contradicting 1 man are as 2 men against 1 man.
(j) Answer #2: If a valid witness came at first, even 100 women are only
considered as 1 man (and she remains permitted);
1. The case is, the first witness was a woman.
(k) (Mishnah): 2 witnesses say that he died ...
2. We must explain R. Nechemyah thusly: Wherever the Torah believed 1
witness, we go after the majority - 2 women contradicting 1 woman are as 2
men against 1 man;
3. 2 women against 1 man are as 1 man against 1 man.
(l) Question: What does this teach? If it is a case of invalid witnesses, as
R. Nechemyah, that goes after the majority - but the previous case taught
(m) Answer: One might have thought, we only go after the majority to be
stringent, not to be lenient - we hear, this is not so.
(n) (Mishnah): 1 wife says that he died, a Tzarah says that he did not -the
wife who says that he died may get married and receive her Kesuvah; the
Tzarah may not get married nor receive her Kesuvah;
(o) 1 wife says that he died, a Tzarah says that he was killed - R. Meir
says, since they contradict each other, they may not get married; R. Yehudah
and R. Shimon say, since they admit that he is dead, they may marry;
(p) 1 witness says that he died, 1 says that he did not die; a woman says
that he died, a woman says that he did not die - she may not marry.