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Yevamos 102


(a) (Rava): mid'Oraisa, a convert can judge a case between converts - "You will put on yourself a king ... amidst your brethren" - on you, a ruler must be amidst your brethren - but a convert can judge a case between converts.
1. If his mother is a Yisrael, he can even judge a Yisrael;
2. For Chalitzah, we require that both parents are Yisrael - "His name will be called in Yisrael".
(b) (Rabah citing Rav): If Eliyahu will come and say that we do Chalitzah with a Minal (a soft leather shoe), we heed him; if he will say, we do not do Chalitzah with a sandal, we do not heed him, because we are accustomed to using a sandal.
(c) (Rav Yosef citing Rav): If Eliyahu will come and say that we do not do Chalitzah with a Minal, we heed him; if he will say, we do not do Chalitzah with a sandal, we do not heed him, because we are accustomed to using a sandal.
(d) Question: On what do these 2 versions argue?
(e) Answer: According to Rabah, we do not use a Minal Lechatchilah; according to Rav Yosef, we may.
(f) Question (against Rav Yosef): But the Mishnah says, 'If they did Chalitzah with a Minal, it is Kesherah' - this connotes, only b'Di'eved!
(g) Answer: No, it is even Lechatchilah - since the end of the Mishnah says, if it was done with Anpilya (a slipper or sock), it is invalid, even b'Di'eved, the beginning of the Mishnah also used the language of b'Di'eved.
(h) Tana'im argue whether a Minal may be used Lechatchilah.
(i) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): An elder said that he saw R. Yehudah Ben Beseira oversee many Chalitzos.
1. R. Yosi: Did he use a Minal or a sandal?
2. Elder: Is a Minal really Kesherah? (The Torah said a shoe, not a Minal - some texts delete this).
3. R. Yosi: If so, why did R. Meir say that if Chalitzah was done with a Minal, it is Kesherah?
i. R. Yakov says, R. Meir permits a Minal Lechatchilah.
(j) Question: The opinion that a Minal is only b'Di'eved - why?
1. Suggestion: If because the top of a Minal is considered "Me'al (from)" his foot, and the straps (Rashi; Aruch - the leather covering) is "Me'al of Me'al (from on top of)" his foot - the Chalitzah should be invalid b'Di'eved!
(k) Answer: It is a decree, lest one use a torn (Rashi; Aruch - loose) Minal, or a half-Minal.
(l) (Rav): Had I not seen R. Chiya oversee a Chalitzah using a sandal with laces, I would only allow a sandal of Arabs, that is tight-fitting.
1. Our sandals, even though they are tied, we tie a thin rope to make it an ideal Chalitzah.
(a) (Rav Yehudah): A Yevamah may marry a stranger after most of the heel is removed.
(b) Question (Beraisa): If the straps of a Minal or sandal were untied, or if he removed most of his foot, the Chalitzah is invalid!
1. It is only invalid because he removed the majority - had she removed it, it would be valid!
2. The majority of the foot is required, not most of the heel!
(c) Answer: When it says, most of the foot, it means, most of the heel.
1. It is called most of the foot, because it supports the foot.
(d) This supports R. Yanai.
1. (R. Yanai): Whether he untied the shoe and she removed it, or she untied the shoe and he removed it, the Chalitzah is invalid, until she unties the shoe and removes it.
(e) Question (R. Yanai): If she tore the shoe off, what is the law? If she burned the shoe, what is the law?
1. Does Chalitzah require exposing the foot, and this was done?
2. Or, must the shoe be removed, and this was not done?
i. This question is unresolved.
(f) Question (R. Nechemyah): What if he is wearing 2 shoes, 1 on top of the other?
1. Question: What is the case?
i. Suggestion: If she removed the outer shoe, and left the inner shoe - the Torah required "From his foot", not from on top of his foot!
2. Answer: Rather, she tore the outer shoe and removed the inner shoe, and left the outer shoe on his foot. i. If removal of the shoe is required - this was done.
ii. If she must expose the foot - this was not done.

(g) Question: Is it normal to wear a shoe on top of a shoe?
(h) Answer: Yes! Rav Yehudah walked in the market wearing 5 pairs of cloth (felt) shoes.
(i) (Rav Yehudah): A Yevamah that grew up among the Yevamim may do Yibum - we are not concerned that she took off the sandal of one of them
1. This implies, if we knew that she did take off his sandal, we would be concerned!
2. Question (Beraisa): Whether he intended for Chalitzah, but she didn't; or if she intended for Chalitzah, but he didn't - the Chalitzah is invalid until both have intention.
(j) Answer #1 - Correction (Rav Yehudah): Even if we saw that she took off his sandal, we are not concerned that perhaps they had intention.
(k) Answer #2: Indeed, if she did take off his sandal, we are concerned!
1. The Beraisa says that Chalitzah without intent does not permit her to a stranger, but she is forbidden to do Yibum.
(l) (Rav Yehudah): A sandal stitched with linen may not be used for Chalitzah - "I gave you shoes of Tachash".
(m) Question: We should say, only Tachash may be used!
(n) Answer: The verse of Chalitzah says "shoe" twice, to include (leather of other animals).
(o) Question: If so, we should say that all materials are allowed!
(p) Answer: If so, what would we learn from the verse "Shoes of Tachash"?
(q) Question (R. Elazar): If the shoe is of leather, and the straps are of goats' hair, may it be used?
(r) Answer (Rav): Yes - this is considered as Tachash.
(s) Question: If so, even if the entire shoe is of hair, it should be permitted!
(t) Answer: That is called Karka (like a Minal - it is not called a shoe).
(a) Question (Rav Kahana): How do we know that "Chaltzah" means, she takes off?
(b) Answer (Shmuel): "v'Chaltzu (they will remove) the stones in which there is a plague".
(c) Question: Perhaps it means to invigorate (put on the shoe), as in "Hechaltzu (prepare) from yourselves men for the army"!
(d) Answer: There also, the meaning is 'to remove' (men from their houses to the war).
(e) Question: "Yichaletz (he will support) a poor person in his poverty"!
(f) Answer: That also means, as recompense for bearing poverty, he will be exempted from punishment in Gehenom".
(g) Question: "Hash-m's angel camps by those that fear Hash-m, Vaychaltzem (and will save them)!
(h) Answer: As reward for fearing Hash-m, they will be exempted from punishment in Gehenom.
(i) Question: "And your bones Yachalitz (he will strengthen)"!
1. (R. Elazar): This is the greatest of the blessings!
2. (Rava): This is strengthening of the bones!
(j) Answer: Yes, the word can mean strengthening or removing; by Chalitzah, if it meant strengthening, it would have said, 'On his foot'.
(k) Objection: Had it said 'On his foot', we would think, it must be done on the foot, but not the shin - it says, "Me'al (from) his foot, to teach that the shin is also acceptable!
(l) Answer: If the Torah meant, she puts on his shoe - it would have said, "b'Me'al" (to include the shin) - it says "Me'al", to show that she removes the shoe.
(m) A heretic: Your nation was cast off from Hash-m - "... Chalatz from them"!
(n) Rav Nachman: Fool! It doesn't say, Hash-m did Chalitzah to them, rather, from them!
1. If a Yavam took a shoe off the Yevamah - this does nothing!
(a) (Mishnah): With an Anpilya (slipper or sock), the Chalitzah is invalid.
(b) We may deduce, an Anpilya is not a Minal.
(c) Support (Mishnah): One that comes to take coins for sacrifices - he does not enter the room wearing a cloak with a hem, nor with Anpilya - we needn't say, not with a Minal or sandal, since we do not enter the Temple wearing a Minal or sandal.
(d) Contradiction (Beraisa): A Minal, sandal and Anpilya all have the same law - one may not walk in them from house to house, nor from bed to bed (on Yom Kipur).
(e) Answer #1 (Abaye): The Anpilya in the Beraisa has soft wads in it, and is forbidden because it is pleasurable.
1. Objection (Rava): If it is not a Minal, is it really forbidden on Yom Kipur because it is pleasurable?
2. Rabah Bar Rav Huna went out with a turban wrapped on his leg!
(f) Answer #2 (Rava): A cloth Anpilya is not as a shoe; an Anpilya of leather is.
1. Presumably, this is correct - if not, there is a contradiction between Beraisos regarding Yom Kipur.
2. (Beraisa): A person may not walk in Kordakisin (undershoes worn to protect from water) in his house, but he may walk in Anpilin in his house.
i. We must say, cloth Anpilin are permitted, leather Anpilin are forbidden.
(g) Support (Beraisa): If one did Chalitzah in a torn Minal which covers most of the foot, or an incomplete sandal which holds most of the foot, in a sandal of rubber or bark, a false foot (in which the leg rests), in a felt shoe, a carpet of one missing his legs, a leather Anpilya, and Chalitzah from an adult.
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