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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Yevamos 64

YEVAMOS 55-65 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.


(a) If there were in Yisrael 1 less than 22,000, and a man did not engage in Piryah v'Rivyah - does he not cause the Divine Presence to depart from Yisrael?!
(b) Aba Chanan says, he is worthy of death - "They (Nadav and Avihu) did not have children" - had they had children, they would not have died;
(c) Others say, he causes the Divine Presence to depart from Yisrael - "To be to you as Hash-m, and to your seed after you."
1. When you have seed after you, the Divine Presence dwells; when not, on who will it dwell - on sticks and rocks?!
(a) (Mishnah): If a man married a woman and she did not give birth in 10 years, he may not neglect Piryah v'Rivyah;
(b) If he divorced her, she may marry another man, and he may keep her for 10 years without children;
1. If she miscarried, 10 years are counted from the miscarriage.
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa): If a man married a woman and she did not give birth in 10 years, he must divorce her and pay a Kesuvah, perhaps he did not merit to have children through her;
(d) We have no proof from the Torah, but there is a hint - "At the end of 10 years that Avram lived in Eretz Kena'an" - this teaches, time in Chutz La'aretz does not count;
(e) .Therefore, if either of them was sick, or if both were in jail, this does not count towards the 10 years.
(f) Question (Rava): Why not learn from Yitzchak - "Yitzchak was 40 years old when he married Rivkah" ... "He was 60 when she gave birth".
(g) Answer (Rav Nachman): Yitzchak was sterile.
(h) Question (Rava): Avraham was also sterile!
(i) Answer (Rav Nachman): The verse by Yitzchak is needed for R. Chiya Bar Aba's teaching (but the verse by Avram has no other purpose, other than to hint at the law of 10 years).
1. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): The years of Yishmael were counted in order to reveal about Yakov's years.
(a) (R. Yitzchak): Yitzchak was sterile - "Yitzchak prayed to Hash-m Nochach (corresponding to) his wife.
1. It does not say for his wife, rather, corresponding to his wife - this teaches that they were both sterile.
(b) Question: If so - why does it say, "Hash-m hearkened to him" - it should say, to them!
(c) Answer: One cannot compare the prayer of a Tzadik who is the son of a Tzadik, to the prayer of a Tzadik whose father is evil.
(d) (R. Yitzchak): The patriarchs were sterile, because Hash-m desires the prayers of Tzadikim.
(e) (R. Yitzchak): The prayers of Tzadikim are compared to a pitchfork.
1. Just as a pitchfork moves grain from one place to another - so too, prayers of Tzadikim switch the attributes of Hash-m from the attribute of anger to the attribute of mercy.
(f) (R. Ami): Avraham and Sarah were Tumtumim (their genitals were initially covered) - "Look to the rock that you were carved from, and to the hammer from which your opening was made"; "Look to Avraham and Sarah that gave birth to you".

(g) (Rav Nachman): Sarah was an Ailonis - "Sarai was sterile, she has no child" - she lacked even a womb.
(h) (Rav): This only applied to the early generations, that lived long; in our days, one may wait 2 1/2 years, the time of 3 pregnancies.
(i) (Rabah, citing Rav Nachman): 3 years, corresponding to 3 visitations.
1. On Rosh Hashanah, pregnancy was decreed for Sarah, Rachel and Chanah.
(j) Objection (Rabah): These laws are incorrect!
1. Rebbi codified our Mishnah - and peoples' years were already shortened in David's days - "The days of our years are 70 years".
(k) Question: The Beraisa said, perhaps he did not merit having children through her - perhaps she did not merit having children through him!
(l) Answer: Since she is not commanded about Piryah v'Rivyah, she would not be punished regarding it.
(m) Objection: But Rabanan told R. Aba Bar Zavda that he should marry and have children, and he replied, had I merited, I would have had through my 1st wife!
(n) Answer: He pushed them off with a falsity - really, he became sterile through Rav Huna's class.
1. Rav Gidal, R. Chelbo, and Rav Sheshes became sterile through Rav Huna's class.
2. Rav Acha Bar Yakov was seized by sickness (of withholding urine) - they hung him from a tree, and green came out from him.
3. Rav Acha Bar Yakov: We were 60 elders, all became sterile from Rav Huna's class except for myself - Chachmah gives life to those that have it!
(a) (Mishnah): If he divorced her, she may remarry ...
(b) She may marry a 2nd man, but not a 3rd - our Mishnah is as Rebbi.
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): If a woman circumcised 2 of her sons and they died, she should not circumcise her 3rd son; R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, she circumcises the 3rd, but not a 4th.
2. Another Beraisa switches the opinions!
3. Question: Which was taught later?
4. Answer (R. Chiya Bar Aba): There was a case of 4 sisters in Tzipori. 3 circumcised their sons, and all died. The 4th came to R. Shimon Ben Gamliel - he told her not to circumcise her son.
5. Objection: Perhaps he would have told also the 3rd not to circumcise!
6. Counter-question: If so, what good is the testimony of R. Chiya Bar Avin?
7. Answer: He teaches that a Chazakah may be established through sisters!
i. (Rava): Now that we see that sisters make a Chazakah - a man should not marry a woman from a family of epileptics or lepers.
ii. This only applies if there are 3 in the family.
8. Question: What was the conclusion?
9. Answer: (R. Yitzchak Bar Yosef): There was a case of a woman whose 2 sons died in circumcision. She came to R. Yochanan on Yom Kipur that fell on Shabbos to ask about her 3rd son; he told her to circumcise him.
10. Abaye: You are permitting a prohibition and a danger.
i. Abaye relied on this and married Chomah, who had been widowed twice; Abaye also died in her lifetime.
(c) Question (Rava): Does anyone jeopardize his life like this?!
1. Objection #1: Abaye himself said, Avin can be relied on, but not Yitzchak!
i. Avin reviews his learning, Yitzchak does not!
2. Objection #2: They argue by circumcision - do they argue by marriage?
3. Answer to Objection #2: Yes!
i. (Beraisa - Rebbi): If she married a man, and he died; a 2nd man, and he died; she may not marry again; R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, she may marry a 3rd man, but not a 4th.
4. Question: We understand, regarding circumcision, some families have weak blood, others, strong blood.
i. Why should a woman have a Chazakah that her husbands will die?
5. Answer #1 (R. Mordecai): Relations with her cause the husband to die.
6. Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Her Mazel causes him to die.
i. The difference between these answers is if her husbands die during engagement, or her husbands fell from the roof (these can only be attributed to Mazel).
(d) Rav Yosef Brei d'Rava: I asked Rav Yosef if the law is as Rebbi; he said, yes; another time, I asked if the law is as R. Shimon Ben Gamliel, and he said yes!
1. Was he mocking me?
(e) Rava: No - regarding marriage and lashes, the Mishnah was sealed as Rebbi; regarding Vestos (expected menstrual periods) and an ox established as a gorer, the Mishnah was sealed as R. Shimon Ben Gamliel.
1. Marriage - as taught above.
2. Lashes - (Mishnah): One who was lashed twice, Beis Din locks him in a cell, and feeds him barley, until his stomach bursts.
3. Vestos - (Mishnah): A woman only establishes a Vest after 3 periods (at the time of the Vest); she only uproots a Vest after 3 times when she does not have a period at the time of the Vest.
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