POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Yevamos 47
YEVAMOS 46-50 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
1) WHEN DO WE ACCEPT CONVERTS?
(a) One might think, this only applies in Eretz Yisrael -
"With you" teaches, every place where you are;
(b) Question: If so, why does it say "In the land"?
(c) Answer: In Eretz Yisrael, the convert must bring proof;
in Chutz la'Aretz, he does not need proof;
(d) Chachamim say, in every place he must bring proof.
(e) Question: If he comes with witnesses, why must the verse
teach that he is believed?
(f) Answer (Rav Sheshes): The witnesses say that we heard
that he converted in Ploni's Beis Din.
1. One might think not to believe them - the verse
teaches, they are believed.
(g) Question: R. Yehudah learned, "Itcha" (with you)" to
include Chutz la'Aretz - but he already used it to teach
"who is established to you"!
(h) Answer: One of the teachings is learned from "Imach (with
you)" (the text of the Gra - "Itchem").
(i) Question: Chachamim say, both in and outside Eretz
Yisrael, he must bring a proof - but it says, "in the
(j) Answer: That teaches that we accept converts even in
1. One might think, they are insincere, and are only
converting because of the greatness of Eretz
(k) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): The law is, both in Eretz Yisrael and
Chutz la'Aretz, he must bring a proof.
2. Even now that Eretz Yisrael lost its former
greatness, we might think that they are only
converting so they can receive agricultural gifts to
i. The verse teaches that we accept their
(l) Question: This is obvious, the law is like Chachamim,
they are the majority!
(m) Answer: One might have thought, R. Yehudah's reasoning is
better - the verse supports him!
1. Therefore, it was needed to say, the law is as
(n) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "You will judge righteously,
between a man and his brother and Gero (his neighbor)" -
(the juxtaposition of "You will judge" and "Gero"
(convert) teaches that one who converts in Beis Din is a
convert; one who converts by himself is not a convert.
(o) A man told R. Yehudah, 'I converted by myself'.
1. R. Yehudah: Do you have witnesses?
2. The man: No.
3. R. Yehudah: Do you have children?
4. The man: Yes.
5. R. Yehudah: You are believed to disqualify yourself,
but not to disqualify your children.
6. Question: Did R. Yehudah really say that he is not
believed about his children?
i. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "He will recognize" -
he will make others know - this shows that a
man is believed to say 'This son is my
7. Answer #1 (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): R. Yehudah
told him - by your own admission, you are a Nochri,
and your testimony is void.
ii. Similarly, he is believed to say, this son was
born to a divorced woman or a Chalutzah (and is
an invalid Kohen);
iii. Chachamim say, he is not believed.
8. Answer #2 (Ravina): R. Yehudah asked if he had
children and grandchildren; the man said, he has
i. R. Yehudah said, you are believed to disqualify
your children, but not your grandchildren.
9. Support (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A man is believed
about his young son, but not about his old son.
i. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): This does not refer to age
- rather, if his son has children, that is
called 'old'; if not, he is called 'young'.
10. The law is as Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak.
11. Question: But the Beraisa supports Ravina!
12. Answer: The Beraisa learns from "He will recognize"
when a Yisrael is believed - but a Nochri is not
believed at all.
(a) (Beraisa): One who comes to convert nowadays - we ask,
'Why do you want to convert? Don't you know, Yisrael are
lowly, oppressed and suffering?!
1. If he says, 'I know - if only I was worthy to share
their affliction!', we accept him immediately,
inform him of some light Mitzvos, some severe
Mitzvos, the sin of agricultural gifts to the poor,
and the punishment of Mitzvos;
2. We tell him, 'Before converting, if you ate Chelev,
you are not cut off; if you desecrated Shabbos, you
are not stoned; now, if you eat Chelev, you get
Kares; if you break Shabbos, you are worthy of
3. Just as we inform him of the punishment of Mitzvos,
we also tell him of their reward - 'The world to
come is only for Tzadikim; Yisrael at this time
cannot receive too much good, nor too much
4. We do not frighten him too much, nor are we so
exacting with him;
(b) If he still wants to convert, we circumcise him
immediately; if strands remain which invalidate the
circumcision, we circumcise him again;
(c) When he heals, we immerse him immediately; 2 Chachamim
stand over him and inform him of some light and severe
Mitzvos; after immersing, he is a full Yisrael;
(d) By a female convert, women see that she enters the water
until her neck; 2 Chachamim stand over her and inform her
of some light and severe Mitzvos.
(e) The law of a freed slave is as the law of a convert;
wherever a Nidah may immerse, a convert or freed slave
may immerse; whatever is a blockage invalidating
immersion, invalidates it for a convert, freed slave or
(f) Question: Why do we mention the lowliness of Yisrael, and
inform him of some of the Mitzvos?
(g) Answer: Perhaps he will decide not to convert.
1. (R. Chelbo): Converts are problematic for Yisrael as
Sapachas (a type of plague) - "The convert that
accompanies you v'NiSPeCHu to the house of Yakov'.
(h) (Beraisa): We inform him of the sin of agricultural gifts
to the poor.
1. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): This is because descendants of
Noach (Nochrim) is killed for stealing less than a
Prutah, and the theft cannot be corrected by
returning the object (we want him to know that the
poor are entitled to these gifts).
(i) (Beraisa): We do not frighten him too much, nor are we so
exacting with him.
(j) (R. Elazar): We learn this from "(Naomi) saw that (Rus)
insisted on going with her, and ceased speaking with
1. Naomi: We are forbidden to go on Shabbos outside the
region of the city.
(k) (Beraisa): If he accepts to convert, we circumcise him
2. Rus: "Where you go, I will go."
3. Naomi: We may not be in seclusion with men.
4. Rus: "Where you spend the night, I will spend the
5. Naomi: We are commanded in 613 Mitzvos!
6. Rus: "Your nation is my nation."
7. Naomi: Idolatry is forbidden to us.
8. Rus: "Your L-rd is my L-rd."
9. Naomi: 4 death penalties are administered by Beis
10. Rus: "As you die, I will die."
11. Naomi: There are 2 graveyards for those executed by
12. "Rus: And there I will be buried."
i. Immediately - "She saw that she was insistent
1. This is because we do not delay a Mitzvah.
(l) If strands remain which invalidate the circumcision, we
circumcise him again.
1. (Mishnah): These strands invalidate circumcision:
flesh which covers the majority of the crown.
(m) (Beraisa): When he heals, we immerse him immediately.
i. If these remained on a Kohen, he may not eat
2. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): Flesh which covers most of the
height of the crown (invalidate the circumcision).
1. Until he heals, we do not immerse him - because
water aggravates the wound.
(n) (Beraisa): 2 Chachamim stand over him ...
(o) Question: But R. Yochanan taught, conversion requires 3!
(p) Answer: In fact, R. Yochanan said, the correct text of
the Beraisa says, *3* Chachamim ...
(q) (Beraisa): After immersing, he is a full Yisrael.
1. The ramifications of this are: if he retracts
conversion, then engages a Bas Yisrael - he is
judged as a heretic Yisrael, and his engagement
(r) (Beraisa): The law of a freed slave is as the law of a
1. (We are thinking that the laws are the same
regarding accepting the yoke of Mitzvos.)
(s) Contradiction (Beraisa): This refers to a convert - but a
freed slave does not need to accept the Mitzvos!
(t) Answer (Rav Sheshes): The previous Beraisa is as
Chachamim, this Beraisa is as R. Shimon Ben Elazar.
1. (Beraisa): "(A beautiful woman that one sees in war
and desires) will cry over her father and mother" -
this applies if she did not accept to convert; but
if she accepted, he immerses her and she is
permitted to him immediately;
2. R. Shimon Ben Elazar says, even though she did not
accept, he may immerse her to become a slave, and
immerse her a second time to free (convert) her.