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of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Yevamos 47

YEVAMOS 46-50 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.


(a) One might think, this only applies in Eretz Yisrael - "With you" teaches, every place where you are;
(b) Question: If so, why does it say "In the land"?
(c) Answer: In Eretz Yisrael, the convert must bring proof; in Chutz la'Aretz, he does not need proof;
(d) Chachamim say, in every place he must bring proof.
(e) Question: If he comes with witnesses, why must the verse teach that he is believed?
(f) Answer (Rav Sheshes): The witnesses say that we heard that he converted in Ploni's Beis Din.
1. One might think not to believe them - the verse teaches, they are believed.
(g) Question: R. Yehudah learned, "Itcha" (with you)" to include Chutz la'Aretz - but he already used it to teach "who is established to you"!
(h) Answer: One of the teachings is learned from "Imach (with you)" (the text of the Gra - "Itchem").
(i) Question: Chachamim say, both in and outside Eretz Yisrael, he must bring a proof - but it says, "in the land"?
(j) Answer: That teaches that we accept converts even in Eretz Yisrael.
1. One might think, they are insincere, and are only converting because of the greatness of Eretz Yisrael!
2. Even now that Eretz Yisrael lost its former greatness, we might think that they are only converting so they can receive agricultural gifts to the poor.
i. The verse teaches that we accept their conversion.
(k) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): The law is, both in Eretz Yisrael and Chutz la'Aretz, he must bring a proof.
(l) Question: This is obvious, the law is like Chachamim, they are the majority!
(m) Answer: One might have thought, R. Yehudah's reasoning is better - the verse supports him!
1. Therefore, it was needed to say, the law is as Chachamim.
(n) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "You will judge righteously, between a man and his brother and Gero (his neighbor)" - (the juxtaposition of "You will judge" and "Gero" (convert) teaches that one who converts in Beis Din is a convert; one who converts by himself is not a convert.
(o) A man told R. Yehudah, 'I converted by myself'.
1. R. Yehudah: Do you have witnesses?
2. The man: No.
3. R. Yehudah: Do you have children?
4. The man: Yes.
5. R. Yehudah: You are believed to disqualify yourself, but not to disqualify your children.
6. Question: Did R. Yehudah really say that he is not believed about his children?
i. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "He will recognize" - he will make others know - this shows that a man is believed to say 'This son is my firstborn';
ii. Similarly, he is believed to say, this son was born to a divorced woman or a Chalutzah (and is an invalid Kohen);
iii. Chachamim say, he is not believed.
7. Answer #1 (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): R. Yehudah told him - by your own admission, you are a Nochri, and your testimony is void.
8. Answer #2 (Ravina): R. Yehudah asked if he had children and grandchildren; the man said, he has both.
i. R. Yehudah said, you are believed to disqualify your children, but not your grandchildren.
9. Support (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A man is believed about his young son, but not about his old son.
i. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): This does not refer to age - rather, if his son has children, that is called 'old'; if not, he is called 'young'.
10. The law is as Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak.
11. Question: But the Beraisa supports Ravina!
12. Answer: The Beraisa learns from "He will recognize" when a Yisrael is believed - but a Nochri is not believed at all.
(a) (Beraisa): One who comes to convert nowadays - we ask, 'Why do you want to convert? Don't you know, Yisrael are lowly, oppressed and suffering?!
1. If he says, 'I know - if only I was worthy to share their affliction!', we accept him immediately, inform him of some light Mitzvos, some severe Mitzvos, the sin of agricultural gifts to the poor, and the punishment of Mitzvos;
2. We tell him, 'Before converting, if you ate Chelev, you are not cut off; if you desecrated Shabbos, you are not stoned; now, if you eat Chelev, you get Kares; if you break Shabbos, you are worthy of stoning';
3. Just as we inform him of the punishment of Mitzvos, we also tell him of their reward - 'The world to come is only for Tzadikim; Yisrael at this time cannot receive too much good, nor too much punishments';

4. We do not frighten him too much, nor are we so exacting with him;
(b) If he still wants to convert, we circumcise him immediately; if strands remain which invalidate the circumcision, we circumcise him again;
(c) When he heals, we immerse him immediately; 2 Chachamim stand over him and inform him of some light and severe Mitzvos; after immersing, he is a full Yisrael;
(d) By a female convert, women see that she enters the water until her neck; 2 Chachamim stand over her and inform her of some light and severe Mitzvos.
(e) The law of a freed slave is as the law of a convert; wherever a Nidah may immerse, a convert or freed slave may immerse; whatever is a blockage invalidating immersion, invalidates it for a convert, freed slave or Nidah.
(f) Question: Why do we mention the lowliness of Yisrael, and inform him of some of the Mitzvos?
(g) Answer: Perhaps he will decide not to convert.
1. (R. Chelbo): Converts are problematic for Yisrael as Sapachas (a type of plague) - "The convert that accompanies you v'NiSPeCHu to the house of Yakov'.
(h) (Beraisa): We inform him of the sin of agricultural gifts to the poor.
1. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): This is because descendants of Noach (Nochrim) is killed for stealing less than a Prutah, and the theft cannot be corrected by returning the object (we want him to know that the poor are entitled to these gifts).
(i) (Beraisa): We do not frighten him too much, nor are we so exacting with him.
(j) (R. Elazar): We learn this from "(Naomi) saw that (Rus) insisted on going with her, and ceased speaking with her."
1. Naomi: We are forbidden to go on Shabbos outside the region of the city.
2. Rus: "Where you go, I will go."
3. Naomi: We may not be in seclusion with men.
4. Rus: "Where you spend the night, I will spend the night."
5. Naomi: We are commanded in 613 Mitzvos!
6. Rus: "Your nation is my nation."
7. Naomi: Idolatry is forbidden to us.
8. Rus: "Your L-rd is my L-rd."
9. Naomi: 4 death penalties are administered by Beis Din.
10. Rus: "As you die, I will die."
11. Naomi: There are 2 graveyards for those executed by Beis Din.
12. "Rus: And there I will be buried."
i. Immediately - "She saw that she was insistent ..."
(k) (Beraisa): If he accepts to convert, we circumcise him immediately.
1. This is because we do not delay a Mitzvah.
(l) If strands remain which invalidate the circumcision, we circumcise him again.
1. (Mishnah): These strands invalidate circumcision: flesh which covers the majority of the crown.
i. If these remained on a Kohen, he may not eat Terumah.
2. (R. Chiya Bar Aba): Flesh which covers most of the height of the crown (invalidate the circumcision).
(m) (Beraisa): When he heals, we immerse him immediately.
1. Until he heals, we do not immerse him - because water aggravates the wound.
(n) (Beraisa): 2 Chachamim stand over him ...
(o) Question: But R. Yochanan taught, conversion requires 3!
(p) Answer: In fact, R. Yochanan said, the correct text of the Beraisa says, *3* Chachamim ...
(q) (Beraisa): After immersing, he is a full Yisrael.
1. The ramifications of this are: if he retracts conversion, then engages a Bas Yisrael - he is judged as a heretic Yisrael, and his engagement takes effect.
(r) (Beraisa): The law of a freed slave is as the law of a convert.
1. (We are thinking that the laws are the same regarding accepting the yoke of Mitzvos.)
(s) Contradiction (Beraisa): This refers to a convert - but a freed slave does not need to accept the Mitzvos!
(t) Answer (Rav Sheshes): The previous Beraisa is as Chachamim, this Beraisa is as R. Shimon Ben Elazar.
1. (Beraisa): "(A beautiful woman that one sees in war and desires) will cry over her father and mother" - this applies if she did not accept to convert; but if she accepted, he immerses her and she is permitted to him immediately;
2. R. Shimon Ben Elazar says, even though she did not accept, he may immerse her to become a slave, and immerse her a second time to free (convert) her.
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