POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Yevamos 21
YEVAMOS 21 (12 Teves) - dedicated by Joseph and Aviva Hoch in
memory of Kaila bas ha'Chaver Moshe Mordechai.
1) A KOHEN GADOL THAT DOES YIBUM WITH A WIDOW
(a) If she was widowed from marriage, all agree that she does
not exempt the Tzarah.
2) THE SOURCE FOR SHENIYOS
1. An Aseh does not override an Aseh and a Lav.
(b) They argue by a widow from engagement.
1. The opinion that says that she exempts the Tzarah -
an Aseh overrides a Lav.
(c) Question (Beraisa): If they did Yibum - he acquires her -
2. The opinion that says that she doesn't exempt the
Tzarah - the Aseh doesn't override the Lav, since
Chalitzah could be done.
(d) Suggestion: Let us say that this refutes Reish Lakish
(who says that when it is possible to fulfill both, the
Aseh doesn't override the Lav).
(e) Rejection: No, Chalitzah is not considered a fulfillment
(a) Question (Rava): Where does the Torah hint at Sheniyos?
3) WHICH ARE THE SHENIYOS
(b) Answer #1(Rava): "All the abominations Ha'el (harsh)" -
implying, there are soft abominations, Sheniyos.
1. Question: How do we know that Ha'el means harsh?
(c) Suggestion: This argues on R. Levi.
2. Answer: "He took Eilei (the strong ones) of the
1. (R. Levi): The punishment for unjust measures is
harsher than for Arayos.
(d) Answer #2 (Rav Yehudah): Sheniyos are hinted at in "He
made handles, investigated and enacted many parables".
i. By measurements, it says "Ha'eleh"; by Arayos,
it says "Ha'el"; the former is harsher.
2. Question: It also says "Ha'eleh" by Arayos!
3. Answer: That comes to exclude unjust measures from
4. Question: Why are measures stricter?
5. Answer: One can repent for having sinned with
Arayos, but not for having cheated with unjust
1. (Ula): Before Shlomo, the Torah was as a basket
without handles; Shlomo made handles for it.
(e) Answer #3 (Rav Kahana): "You will guard my guarding" -
make a guarding for my guarding.
2. (R. Oshiya): "Increase the prohibition, and do not
i. (Rav Ashi): The parable for R. Oshiya's
teaching is a man who has an orchard. If he
guards it from the outside, it is totally
guarded. If he guards it from the inside, what
is in front of him is guarded, what is in back
of him is not guarded.
ii. Rejection: Rav Ashi's analogy is inaccurate!
Guarding a field from the inside, at least what
is in front of him is guarded; without
Sheniyos, people would stumble in Ervah itself!
(f) Question (Abaye): If so, Sheniyos are mid'Oraisa!
(g) Answer (Rav Yosef): It is mid'Oraisa, but Chachamim
(h) Question (Abaye): Chachamim explain the entire Torah!
(i) Retraction: Rather, Sheniyos are Rabbinic; the verse is
only an Asmachta.
(a) (Beraisa): These are the Sheniyos: His mother's mother,
his father's mother, the wife of his father's father, the
wife of his mother's father, the wife of his father's
maternal brother, the wife of his mother's paternal
brother, his son's daughter-in-law, and his daughter's
4) EXTENDED SHENIYOS:
(b) A man may marry his father-in-law's (ex)wife, his
(c) He is forbidden to marry his step-son's daughter; his
step-son may marry the (ex)wife or daughter of his
(d) His step-son's wife says to him, I am permitted to you,
my daughter is forbidden to you.
(e) Question: The daughter of his step-son is prohibited by
1. "The daughter of (his wife's) son or daughter ...".
2. Answer: Since we wanted to teach later, His
step-son's wife says to him, I am permitted to you,
my daughter is forbidden to you - even though her
daughter is forbidden mid'Oraisa, Chachamim did not
decree against her.
3. Question: The wife of his father-in-law can also
say, 'I am permitted to you, my daughter is
forbidden to you', since she is his wife's sister!
4. Answer: The daughter of his step-son is always
forbidden to him, so it was taught - the daughter of
his father-in-law's wife is only prohibited in the
life of his wife, so it was not taught.
(a) (Rav): 4 Sheniyos do not extend to all generations.
1. Rav was sure about 3 of them: the wife of his
mother's paternal brother, the wife of his father's
maternal brother, and his daughter-in-law;
2. Ze'iri added, the wife of his mother's father.
i. (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): A way to remember
this - what is above (the Sheniyos of) Rav.
3. Question: Why didn't Rav list this case?
4. Answer: She is confused with the wife of the
i. Ze'iri is not concerned for her - a man is
frequent in his father's house, and will not
err; he is infrequent in his mother's house,
and may err.
(b) Question: A daughter-in-law is a Torah prohibition (why
did Rav list it among Sheniyos)?
5) WHICH WOMEN WERE DECREED SHENIYOS?
(c) Correction: Rather, the daughter-in-law of his son.
(d) Question: Is the daughter-in-law of his son really a
1. (Beraisa): His daughter-in-law - Ervah; the
daughter-in-law of his son - Sheniyah; this applies
to his son, his son's son for all generations.
(e) Correction: Rather, the daughter-in-law of his daughter.
1. (R. Ami): The daughter-in-law was only prohibited
because of the daughter-in-law.
2. (Rav Chisda): The explanation is - the
daughter-in-law of the daughter was only forbidden
on account of the daughter-in-law of the son.
3. (Abaye): For example, the daughter-in-law of Bar
Tzisai's house (that was a daughter-in-law of the
son and of the daughter).
(a) Question: What is the law of the wife of the mother's
1. The wife of the father's maternal brother, and the
mother's paternal brother, which have a paternal
side, were decreed upon; but when there is no
paternal side, Chachamim made no decrees; or, do we
(b) Answer (Rav Safra): When there is 1 paternal side - that
is a decree - will we make a decree on a decree?!
(c) Objection (Rava): All these cases are decrees on a
1. His mother is Ervah; his mother's mother is a
Sheniyah; we decreed on the mother of the father on
account of the mother of the mother!
(d) The question remains: is the wife of the maternal brother
of the mother forbidden?
i. This is because they are all called
2. The wife of his father is Ervah; the wife of his
father's father is a Sheniyah; we decreed on the
wife of his mother's father on account of the wife
of his father's father.
i. This is because they are all called wives of
3. The wife of the paternal brother of the father is
Ervah; the wife of the maternal brother of the
father is a Sheniyah; they decreed on the wife of
the paternal brother of the mother on account of the
wife of the maternal brother of the father.
i. This is because they are all wives of his
(e) (Rav Yehudah Bar Shila): In Eretz Yisrael, they say that
whenever the female is Ervah, they decreed that by a
male, his wife is a Sheniyah.
(f) Objection (Rava): Is this always true?
1. A mother-in-law is Ervah; the wife of his
father-in-law is permitted!
(g) Suggestion: Wasn't Rav Yehudah Bar Shila coming to
include the wife of the maternal brother of the mother -
whenever the female is Ervah, they decreed that by a
male, his wife is a Sheniyah.
2. The daughter of his mother-in-law is Ervah; the wife
of the son of his mother-in-law is permitted!
3. The daughter of his father-in-law is Ervah; the wife
of the son of his father-in-law is permitted!
4. His step-daughter is Ervah; the wife of his step-son
5. The daughter of his step-daughter is Ervah; the wife
of the son of his step-daughter is permitted!
(h) Question: Why is this case different (than Rava's cases
in which they did not decree?)
(i) Answer: This case only involves 1 engagement; Rava's
cases come through 2 engagements.
(j) Question (Rav Mesharshiya): The wife of the brother of
the father of the father, and the sister of the father of
the father - are these Sheniyos?
1. Since there is Ervah in the lower generation, we
(k) Answer (Rav Papi): The Mishnah lists the Sheniyos, and
omits these cases!
2. Or, perhaps these are distant generations, and no
decree was made.
(l) Rejection: The Tana omitted cases.
(m) Question: What else did he omit?
(n) Answer: The Sheniyos of R. Chiya (Daf 40).
(o) Ameimar permitted the wife of the brother of the father
of the father, and the sister of the father of the
(p) (Rav Hillel): I saw the Sheniyos of Mar Brei d'Ravna;
there are 16.
1. Suggestion: These are the 8 of our Mishnah, 6 of R.
Chiya, and our 2 in question!
2. Counter-question: You should count 17 - there is
also the wife of the maternal brother of the mother,
whom we concluded is forbidden!