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Yevamos 99

YEVAMOS 99 (1 Adar Bet, 5760) - dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Mordecai ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld, who perished in the Holocaust along with most of his family. May the martyrs of the Holocaust atone for Klal Yisrael like Korbanos and bring, in their merit, the return of Hashem to Tziyon, speedily in our days.

1) [line 4] MACHAVO - a [dark] hiding place
2) [line 13] U'VA'U ACHEIHEN V'NAS'UM - that is, brothers (*from the same father*) of the husband of one of the two women

3) [line 27] L'HAGBOS IMO KESUVASAH - to cause his mother to collect her Kesuvah
4) [Line 32] V'AVDA METALTELEI - and slaves are considered chattels


(a) The Torah (Vayikra 21:1-4) forbids Kohanim from coming into contact with corpses while concurrently commanding them to handle the burial of certain relatives. Those relatives are the Kohen's mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister from his father (if she is an unmarried virgin), and wife (if the wife is permitted to be married to him).
(b) The prohibition to come into contact with corpses applies only to male Kohanim who are not Chalalim. The two men of our Mishnah, because of the uncertainty as to their identity, may not come into contact with corpses other than the closest relatives of the certain Kohen.

6) [line 5] EINAN SOFGIN HA'ARBA'IM - neither of them receives 39 (lit. the "Forty") [lashes for transgressing the prohibition forbidding Kohanim to come into contact with corpses]

(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b) If a non-Kohen eats Terumah without knowing that it is Terumah, he must replace what he ate in the form of a food that becomes Terumah (Tashlumei Terumah). He returns the Keren, the amount of Terumah that he ate, to the Kohen who owned the Terumah (see Insights to the Daf, Pesachim 32). In addition, he is fined another Chomesh (fifth) of the ensuing total (i.e. a quarter of the value of what he ate). This Chomesh may be paid to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2), and is not necessarily given to the Kohen who owned the Terumah that was eaten.
(c) If the person ate Terumah in an abnormal fashion, such as by drinking olive oil, he only pays the value of the Terumah that was destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not the laws of Tashlumei Terumah).
(d) A non-Kohen who eats or benefits from Terumah b'Mezid (intentionally) pays the value of the Terumah destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not Tashlumei Terumah), and incurs the punishment of Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(e) The above Halachos apply to Bikurim as well.

Whenever a person slaughters an ox, sheep or goat (that is not Kodshim), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs] (Devarim 18:3). 1. The Zero'a consists of the two upper limbs of the right foreleg, from the knee until the top of the shoulder blade; 2. The Lechayayim consists of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue; 3. The Keivah consists of the maw together with its Chelev, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev.

9) [line 11] BECHORO (BECHOR)
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

10) [line 11] RO'EH AD SHE'YISTA'EV - it grazes until it develops a Mum (a blemish), which disqualifies it from being offered on the Mizbe'ach, and is then eaten by its owner in accordance with the laws pertaining to the eating of a Bechor

11) [line 24] MA'ALIN MI'TERUMAH L'YUCHASIN - we establish a person [with unknown lineage] as a Kohen based upon the fact that people apportion Terumah to him

12) [line 32] CHAZA B'ASREI D'REBBI YOSI - he (Rebbi Elazar bar Tzadok) saw [people apportioning Terumah to the slave of a Kohen] in the place [that follows the Halachic rulings] of Rebbi Yosi

13) [line 35] TUMTUM
A Tumtum is a person whose genitals are covered with skin so that we do not know if he is a male or a female.

14) [line 35] ANDROGINUS
An Androginus is a hermaphrodite, a person with both male and female reproductive organs. There is a Machlokes as to whether an Androginus is a male, a female or a new gender.

15) [line 37] ISHAH SHE'EINAH HOGENES LO - a woman who may not marry a Kohen (lit. who is inappropriate for him). See Background to Yevamos 85:17.

16) [line 37] V'CHULAN MESHAGRIN LAHEM - [however, Terumah] is sent to all of them

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