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Previous daf Yevamos 74
YEVAMOS 74 (6 Adar I) - dedicated by Harav Avi Feldman & family in memory of
his father, ha'Tzadik Rav Yisrael Azriel ben ha'Rav Chaim (Feldman) of
Milwaukee, on his Yahrzeit.
1) [line 2] TZITZIN HA'ME'AKVIN ES HA'MILAH - small strips of the foreskin
that invalidate circumcision
2) [line 4] PESACH (KORBAN PESACH)
(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth
of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the
whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards
evening." The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first
year that is roasted in its entirety.
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the
fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable
to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to
the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each
Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a
k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is
sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific
Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis
of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single
Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places -- Pesachim
86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d) The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach.
Nochrim, people who are Teme'im and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited
from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).
3) [line 10] MA'ASER BEHEMAH
(a) Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were
born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a
narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one
as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra
(27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shevet,
ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m." - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be
tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated
(b) Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or
defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in
Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.
4) [line 11] MA'ASER RISHON
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the
Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called *Ma'aser Rishon*; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
5) [line 17] PARAH
The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har
ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei
Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other
work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared
for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the
courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is
sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar
branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the
carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
6) [line 17] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person or utensil that has been immersed in a Mikvah to
become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely
Tahor with regard to Terumah. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal;
he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he or it touches Terumah
or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin
that he or it touches do not become Teme'im. After the following nightfall,
he or it becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah.
7) [line 18] MECHUSAR KIPURIM
(a) There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav,
Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan - for a Zav,
or a Mikvah - for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the
Tevilah) and 3. a Korban.
(b) The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah.
They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following
morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall.
After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.
8) [line 32] MUFNEI - [one of] the words "Mimenu" is free (i.e. it is not
necessary for the understanding of the simple meaning of the verse or for any
other Derashah, so it may be used to infer a Gezerah Shavah)
9) [line 34] LAI, AFNUYEI MUFNEI - indeed, [one of] the words "Mimenu" is
certainly free (for inferring a Gezerah Shavah)
10) [line 43] TACHRICHIM - shrouds
11) [line 46] LEMEDIN V'EIN MESHIVIN
(a) MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of
any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezerah
Shavah between the two topics.
(b) MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a
Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a
Gezerah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a
Gezerah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezerah
Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
(c) EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there
is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezerah Shavah if we have
no logical argument not to learn the Gezerah Shavah, or if they cannot be
used at all for a Gezerah Shavah.
12) [line 48] "VA'ANI HINEI NASATI..." - "And I, behold, I have given you the
charge of my elevated gifts" (Bamidbar 18:8) - The word "Terumosai" (my
elevated gifts) is plural, indicating two types of Terumos.
13) [line 50] L'HASIKAH TACHAS TAVSHILCHA - to use it as fuel to cook your
14) [line 2] CHAZEH V'SHOK
The chest and the hind leg of the Shelamim (peace offering) were waved in a
prescribed manner and were then given as a gift to the Kohanim, as described
in Vayikra (7:28-36). They may not be eaten by non-Kohanim, but they may be
eaten by both male and female Kohanim. Once a female Kohanim becomes married
to non-Kohen, however, she may no longer eat from the Chazeh v'Shok. Even
after her husband dies or divorces her, she may not eat from the Chazeh
*15*) [line 2] EINAH B'CHOZERES - Chazeh v'Shok may not be eaten by a female
Kohen who was once married to a non-Kohen, even if she is no longer married
to him. [Therefore, it would not be appropriate to call the Chazeh v'Shok "an
article that may be eaten by *any* Kohen, male or female."]
16) [line 6] ZAV BA'AL SHTEI RE'IYOS
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Pesachim
66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in
one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a
clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg,
in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can
also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine
whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to
an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too
much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to
start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh
day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall
he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he
emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three
consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to
enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
17) [line 6] METZORA MUSGAR / METZORA MUCHLAT
(a) When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must
ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega
Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks,
making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what
changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen *confirms* the Tum'ah of
the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen
pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his
Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b) The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora
are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of
clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color
of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es,
which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c) On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two
kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a
hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a
clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into
the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on
the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are
Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent
off to the fields.
(d) The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of
hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered
Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are
forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he
once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a
Mechusar Kaparah (see above, entry #7). For a description of the order of the
Korbanos of the Metzora, see Background to Megilah 8:11:c-e.
18) [line 8] BAR KAPARAH - one who needs to bring a Korban to acquire
19) [line 20] MaCHPaZ
See Background to Yevamos 73:20.
20) [line 21] HaDaS TaV - These words are a mnemonic device listing five
things that apply to Ma'aser Sheni that make it more stringent than Terumah:
1. *H*ava'ah (Hava'as Makom - it must to be brought to and eaten in
Yerushalayim); 2. Vi*D*uy; 3. A*S*ur l'Onen (it may not be eaten by an Onen;
4. *T*um'ah (one may not cook with it when it is Tamei or use it's oil in a
lamp. If someone eats it when it is Tamei he receives lashes); 5. *B*i'ur;
21) [line 27] YOLEDES
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah
after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain
amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That
time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has
the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth
to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts
for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after
nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah,
if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she
sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood
that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during
this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts
for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the
total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter
the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a
male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she
could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as
an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a
Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
22) [line 27] "...B'CHOL KODESH LO SIGA V'EL HA'MIKDASH LO SAVO AD MELOS
YEMEI TAHORAH." - "...she shall touch no consecrated thing, nor come into the
sanctuary, until the days of her purity are fulfilled." (Vayikra 12:4)
24) [line 31] PaNK'AKaS
See Background to Yevamos 73:17.
25) [line 34] MI'CHLAL SHE'HI TEME'AH - this implies that until now she has
been Teme'ah [with regard to eating Kodshim]
*26*) [line 37] U'MI MATZIS AMART TERUMAH KESIVAH HACHA - is it really
necessary to prove that the verse "v'Chiper Aleha" is not discussing Terumah?
It is self-evident that it is not discussing Terumah!