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Yevamos 60

YEVAMOS 46-60 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.

1) [line 1] MEFUTAH
If a man seduces a virgin aged between 12 and 12 1/2, and the girl or her father refuses to let him marry her, or if the man chooses not to marry her, he must give the father of the girl fifty Shekalim. If he chooses to marry her and they consent, the man is not obligated to pay anything to the girl or his father at the time of the marriage. If he later divorces her, he must give her the dowry (Kesuvah) of a virgin upon her divorce (Shmos 22:16).

2) [line 2] BEI KASIL- the name of a place

(a) The Chachamim set down various rules to determine the Halachah when there is an argument among the Tana'im.
(b) One of these rules is that every time the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov is mentioned, the Halachah follows his ruling (this is the connotation of "Naki," - clean, pure). Some hold that this rule only applies when the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov appears in a Mishnah; hence the wording, "*Mishnas* Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov." Others write that the word "Mishnas" is not to be taken literally, rather, even in a Beraisa the Halachah follows his opinion (RASHI to Yevamos 49b DH Mishnas).
(c) There is also a difference of opinion as to the meaning of the word *Kav* in this expression. One opinion states that just as a Kav is a small measure, so too Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov is quoted only a limited number of times (RASHI ibid. and to Bechoros 23b). Another source states that there is a tradition that in 102 places (the Gematriya, or numeric equivalent, of the word "Kav") where Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov's name is recorded, the Halachah follows his ruling. In all other instances, the Halachah does not follow his ruling (ROSH Eruvin 4:2 quoting RABEINU CHANANEL).

4) [line 31] MITAMEI LAH
(a) The Torah (Vayikra 21:1-4) forbids Kohanim from coming into contact with corpses while concurrently commanding them to come into contact with certain deceased relatives. Those relatives are the Kohen's mother, father, son, daughter, brother, unmarried virgin sister from his father, and permitted wife.
(b) The Tana'im in our Gemara argue with regard to a Kohen's unmarried sister, as to whether he may become Tamei for her if she was betrothed, raped, seduced or was a Mukas Etz.


5) [line 7] MIDE'SHAVKEI (L'VAR) [BAR] ZUGEI - since his partner, [Rebbi Shimon, with whom he agreed with regard to the Halachah of an Arusah,] left him [with regard to the Halachah of a Mukas Etz]

6) [line 9] V'HA APIKTEI? - but you have already learned something from it (that he may not be Mitamei to his sister who is an Arusah)!?

*7*) [line 22] MICHLAL DEHA'TAF, BEIN YAD'U - that is, it would seem from this statement that *all the minors* (under the age of puberty) were permitted to them (see TOSFOS DH b'Re'uyah)

*8*) [line 25] B'RE'UYAH LIBA'EL HA'KASUV MEDABER - (according to this answer, the same applies to the words "Asher Lo Yad'u"; the expression refers only to those who were not *able* to have Bi'ah yet, because they were under three years of age.)

*9*) [line 31] MENA YAD'EI - that is, how did they know how old each of the girls were?
10) [line 33] TZITZ - the thin gold plate on which was written "Kodesh la'Sh-m", worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38). See Charts to Shabbos 63b.

11) [line 33] PANEHA MORIKOS - (a) her face would pale; (b) her face would turn yellowish-green (based on TOSFOS here and to Bechoros 44b DH li'Ydei)

12a) [line 35] HIDROKAN - a swelling and sickness of the stomach
b) [line 35] SIMAN LA'AVEIRAH HIDROKAN - Hidrokan is a sign that a person is a transgressor

13a) [line 36] "VA'YIMTZE'U MI'YOSHEVEI YAVESH GIL'AD..." - "And they found among the inhabitants of Yavesh Gil'ad four hundred young virgins..." (Shoftim 21:12)

b) YAVESH GIL'AD (PILEGESH B'GIV'AH - The Concubine of Giv'ah)
(a) A civil war ensued after the tribe of Binyamin sympathized with certain men from the city of Giv'ah who performed abhorrent acts with the concubine of a Levi. The Levi dissected her dead body and sent the limbs to all of the tribes of Benei Yisrael to protest the iniquity. The apathy of the men of the tribe of Binyamin and their unwillingness to root out the evil in their midst caused Benei Yisrael to gather together and swear that no one would give their daughters to the men of Binyamin as a wife. They then waged war against the tribe of Binyamin, with confidence that they would achieve victory and avenge the iniquity.
(b) HaSh-m, however, caused Benei Yisrael to incur huge losses in the first two battles of the war because of various sins of lack of faith, first and foremost their unwillingness to avenge the honor of HaSh-m regarding Pesel Michah (the idol constructed by Michah -- see Shoftim 17-18). After they repented, He let them vanquish Binyamin to the extent that only six hundred men remained from the entire tribe of Binyamin. The other tribes regretted the loss and sought to find wives for these men, to rebuild their tribe.
(c) One plan used is mentioned in RASHI DH me'Anshei. Benei Yisrael discovered that the city of Yavesh Gil'ad had not joined in the oath or the battle. As such, they were guilty of treason and of siding with Binyamin. All of the men and older women of the city were put to death. Four hundred girls were kept alive and were given to four hundred men from Binyamin.
(d) For the remaining two hundred men, two more methods were employed. Inspecting the words of the oath, it was decided that the oath only restricted the *men* of Benei Yisrael from giving wives to the men of Binyamin ("Mimenu"). However, the *children* of those who took the oath were able to marry off their daughters to the men of the tribe of Binyamin. Next, the oath precluded *giving* wives to the men of Binyamin, but not the *taking* of those wives themselves, an event that Benei Yisrael allowed those men to perform (see RASHI to Bereishis 49:27). The events of this tragic time in Jewish history are recorded in Shoftim 19-21.

14) [line 38] REICHAH NODEF - the smell of the wine would spread forth from her mouth
15a) [line 43] B'FEIRUSH SHEMI'A LACH? - Did you hear it explicitly from Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi?
b) [line 43] O MI'KELALA SHEMI'A LACH? - or did you derive it from something else that Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi said?

16) [line 44] SHE'KARA ALEHA AR'AR - the legitimacy of the lineage of one the families in the city was questioned

17) [line 44] SHAGAR - sent
18) [line 47] HO'IL V'INSIV, INSIV - since she is already married, we will let her stay married

19) [last line] ZIL, APIK! - go, send her away!
20) [last line] MAPIKNA LACH REBBI YA'AKOV BAR IDI ME'UNECH - (a) (lit. "I will remove Rebbi Yakov Bar Idi from your ear") I will inform you that Rebbi Yakov Bar Idi will not be able to help you, since I will excommunicate you (RASHI here and to Sanhedrin 8a DH Mapikna; (b) I will refute all of his proofs [such that his statement will no longer strengthen your claim] (RASHI Chulin 132b DH Mapikna)

*21*) [last line] V'CHEN HAYAH REBBI SHIMON BEN YOCHAI OMER - that is, this is another Halachah that Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai learned from the verses which discussed the war against Midyan (ARUCH LA'NER, see his comments on this Sugya for further explanation).

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