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Yevamos 42

YEVAMOS 42 & 43 - sponsored by Hagaon Rav Yosef Pearlman of London, a living demonstration of love for and adoration of the Torah.

1) [line 18] TAKANAS ERVAH - so that people should not violate prohibitions of Arayos

2) [line 19] TAKANAS VELAD - so that it should be clear who is the father of the child

(a) According to Chazal, a woman can give birth to a viable child only after a seven-month or a nine-month term of pregnancy. The child that is born after an eight-month term will not be viable. Even if he appears normal upon birth it is assumed that he will not survive and will die from a birth defect shortly.
(b) The Amora'im argue as to whether the child born at the beginning, but before the end, of the ninth month ("l'Mekuta'in") can be viable. According to all opinions, however, a woman who gives birth in the seventh month can bear a viable child even if the child is born before the end of the seventh month. (For example, Shmuel ha'Navi was born after six months and two days, as mentioned in our Gemara, based on the verse in Shmuel I 1:20).

4) [line 46] SANDAL - a flat, fish-shaped abortion
5) [line 48] MOCH - a cloth used during relations to prevent the woman from becoming pregnant

6) [line 49] MISHUM DACHASAH - because of the pressure [upon the fetus]


7) [line 1] U'MI'AKAR CHALAVAH - and her milk will become turbid
8) [line 2] MEMASMESA LEI B'VEITZIM V'CHALAV - she feeds him eggs and milk (instead of her milk) [to sustain the child's strength]

9) [line 15] SHE'HAYESAH REDUFAH LEILECH L'VEIS AVIHA - she is constantly going home to her father's house

10) [line 16] CHAVUSH - imprisoned
11) [line 20] AILONIS - a woman who is incapable of conception. This word is derived from the word "Ayil", a ram, which is a male and does not have a womb (Kesuvos 11a)

12) [line 24] MI'MASNISIN D'CHARMA HADAR BEI - he changed his opinion because of the Mishnah that was taught in Kerem b'Yavneh, quoted by Rebbi Yishmael, the son of Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah

13) [line 26] KEREM B'YAVNEH - the Yeshiva in Yavneh where the students sat in rows resembling grapevines in a vineyard

14a) [line 33] D'RAMA LACH HA - the one who asked you to resolve this contradiction
b) [line 33] LO CHASH L'KIMCHEI - has no concern for the words that he utters (lit. for the flour that he grinds, whether it is ground from wheat or from bran -- RASHI Pesachim 84a)


(a) The Chachamim set down various rules to determine the Halachah when there is an argument among the Tana'im.
(b) One of these rules applies if we find a certain Halachah recorded anonymously ("Stam") in one place in the Mishnah and it is recorded with dissenting views in another place. If the Stam Mishnah is the latter of the two, it is meant to resolve the argument and show that the Halachah follows this opinion (RASHI to Avodah Zarah 7a). If the dissenting opinions are recorded after the Stam Mishnah, it does *not* prove that we rule like the Stam Mishnah. This is either because such a Stam Mishnah provides no proof that the Stam is the Halachic opinion, or else because the argument following the Stam is meant to cast doubt on the Stam Mishnah and show that the Halachah does not follow that opinion.
(c) From our Gemara it can be learned that even if the dissenting view or views occur in the same Mishnah after the Stam opinion, it is still termed "Stam v'Achar Kach Machlokes." (TOSFOS ibid. DH Stam writes that although we cannot rule like the Stam Mishnah based on it being written anonymously, nevertheless the Stam is considered to be an opinion shared by numerous Tana'im, and if only a single Tana disagrees we will rule like the Stam because we follow the majority.)
(d) There is no established order in the Mishnayos ("Ein Seder la'Mishnah") with regard to two Mishnayos from different Sedarim of the Mishnah, and as such, these rules do not apply to two Mishnayos from different Sedarim. Similarly, because Ein Seder la'Mishnah from one Masechta to another, these rules do not apply to two Mishnayos from two Masechtos. (However, from our Sugya it appears that RASHI rules that Stam v'Achar Kach Machlokes *does* apply to two Mishnayos from different Masechtos, but not to two Mishnayos from different Sedarim -- see RASHASH.)

16a) [line 37] MISTAMICH V'AZIL REBBI AVAHU - Rebbi Avahu walked while leaning
b) [line 38] A'KISFEI D'REBBI NACHUM SHAM'EI - on the shoulder of Rebbi Nachum, his attendant

17) [line 38] MANKIT V'AZIL HILCHESA MINEI - he (Rebbi Nachum) received instruction (lit. was gathering Halachos) from him (Rebbi Avahu) while walking

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